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ON THE TRUE MEANING OF THE WOKD SHIN,^^ 



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AS EXHIBITED lU THE 



Quotatiei^s adduced under that word, 



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CHINESE IMPERIAL THESAURUS, g. 




ON THE TRUE MEANING OF THE WORD SHIN, 

AS EXHIBITED IN THE 

Q UO TA TIONSADD UCED UNDER THA T WORD, 

IN TIIK 

CHINESE IMPERIAL THESAURUS, 

CALLED 
Wi'XM'M '^'HE PEI-WAN-YUN-FOO, 

TRANSLATED BY W. H. MEDHURST. 



In the above-mentioned Thesaurus the first and only direct 
meaning given to the word jjjlfl Shin is ^ Ling, spirit, or 
spiritual. A secondary sense, flowinj:: oiu of tiie alcove, is set 
forth in a quotation from the t§; ^ OT Yih-h-^-sze. To'/i- 
n nation of the Book of Diagrams, as follows : '-^ ^ ^> j|[l] 
^ §j5 iji^ Tlie inscrutablei>"ss of the superior and inferior 
principles of nature is called )Jj^ Shin, mysterious." These 
two classes of meanings will be found generally to include 
all that the Ciiinese mean by Shin, viz. 1. Spirit, whetlier in 
the abstract or concrete ; intelligence, and intelligent invisible 
beings; mind, thought, animal excitement, ardor, vigor, ani- 
mation, energy, genius, temper, soul, an incorporeal substance, 
apparition, ghost, sprite, genius, fairy, elf, manes, as also 
spiritual influence, spirituality, essence, (fcc. 2. Inscrutable, 
mysterious, unsearchable, unfathomable, hidden from human 
understanding, beyond cojnmon comprehension, extraordina- 
ry, wonderful, ravishing, refined, marvellous, and miraculous, 
as though the work of spiritual beings. 

Having dc lined the word j]]lp Shin to mean as above spirit^ 
mysterious^ ifcc. the compilers of the Thesaurus adduce 
a number of combinations in which Shin is found, accoiu- 
panicd by various quotations from Chinese authors, who use 
the phrases referred to. 

1. /\ ftp Jiili-shin : entering into the mysterious. The 
first quotation under this head is from the ^ j|§5 Book of 

A 



Diagrams, as follows : " ^ ® A P M It M -{fil ^^«"» 
by investigating the hidden meaning of things, enter into the 
mysterious, in order that they may carry their studies out 
into use." See Theology of the Chineue, page 139. 

Then follows a quotation from a work on raligraphy 
wherein the writer says, that the specimens of penmanship 
produced by various individuals ^ f^ entered into the 
mysterious, or approached the vjonderful ; intimating that 
they were so beautifully executed, aa to ravisii the beholder, 
and almost induce the belief that they were the production 
of spiritual beings. The whole description is closed by the 
expression TV X^ entered into the wonderful, which is ex- 
planatory of the phrase here adduced. 

A quotation fiom the odea of @>Ea Tsaou-chih is then 
given : "^ [^ f| ® ffi Hi X W ^"^ susprising style 
in composition, and elegant accomplishments, passed through 
the abstruse and entered the mysterious ;" i. e. they were 
wonderful and extraordinary : the connection of ^ ^ t'hung- 
wei with TV jjj$ jnh-shin. points to the meaning of the latter, 

A couplet composed by ^J ^ Lew-yen, on the subject of 
^dp balancing a pole on the head, runs thus ; " Before th« 
gallery were a hundred actors, all striving to exhibit some- 
thing new ; but the long pole feat was 3^7 •^ W ^^^^ ^o 
wonderful that it hor.^ered on the m,arvellousy Here the 
meaning of the phrase under consideration is fixed by its 
being used in connection with the word jy wonderful. 

A couplet from the writings of the famous poet ^^ 
Q Le-t'hae-pih, is then introduced : "Having spread out the 
white paper, he commented on the Reason Classic, when his 
pen traced such subtile thoughts, that they appeared ^ >\ 
H^ wonderful and related to the mysterious^ Here again 
the combination fixes the sense. 

2. %^ fl^ KweUshin, ghosts and spirits, or spiritual beings 
generally. The first quotation here made is from the ^ ^g 
Book of Diagrams. " The great man accords, in the order 



of liis arrangements, with the four seasons ; and corresponds, 
in tiis happy or calamitous visitations, with ^ f{^ spiritual 
beings.'*^ A full translation of this passage, with the notes 
upon it, will be found on page 104 of the Theology of the 
Chinese; from which it appears, that the great man re- 
ferr.^d to is the individual in power; that " when divested of 
selfish views he complies with nature, and nature does not 
oppose him ; how much less th^n, asks the commentator, can 
men ! and how much less f;!^ ^ spirits ? The imperial 
will being fixed, spirits have nothing to do but comply." 

Next follows a quotation from the |g ^ Book of Ceremo- 
nies : ♦' The sages considr^red ^ jjj^ spirits as the !^ asso- 
ciates, to whom government was to be complied, and the 5 
'fj* five elements as the ^ materials they had to work 
with." This passage will be found in full on page 80 of the 
Theology of the Chinese. The commentator there quoted ex- 
plains the word ^ too, which origh ally imports disciples or 
followers, to mean "associates who comply one with another, 
and do not jostle each other out of their respective positions 
and duties." 

The Lexicographers then quote from the ^ |§ Book of 
Ceremonies under the Chow dynasty, as follows : <' The ar- 
rangements to be made in reasons of scarcity are twelve ; 
such as the collection of the people together, &c. The ele- 
venth, refers to the ^ ^jjj^ searching out [or spirits.'^ The 
commentator, also quoted in the Thesaurus, says that this 
means, " To inquire into what sacrifices had been neglected 
and attend to them." See Theology of the Chinese, page 159. 
^ In the account '^f '^ i'^ Kea-e, recorded in the books of 
the Han dynasty, it is said, that " Wan-te thinking one day a- 
bout K^a-e, sent for him ; as he entered, his majesty was 
feasting on some sacrificial viands, and sitting in the im- 
perial mansion ; when being agitated on the subject of ^ j^^ 
spiritual beings^ he enquired regarding their origin. Kea-^ 
informed him fully on this subject; in the conversat'on which 



ensued, the time passed on uutil midnight, whenWan-te be- 
came so interested in the giibject. that he drew nearer the 
table to listen." ^ 1^ K^ Le-shang-ym, in an ode on this 
subject, remarks, '' What a pity that he should sit till mid- 
night, and vainly draw near the table to listen ; never so 
much as once asking about the interests of the people, .but 
inquiring about ^^ ^{W sviritual beings.^'' 

A poet, called j^ "^ Too- fob, has a couplet written in 
praise of ^ ;^ t^ Le-t'hae-pth, which runs thus : " When 
he put his pen to paper, he frightened the wind and^rain ; 
and when his verse was completed, he caused^ |^ spiritual 
beings to weep." 

3. "^ jji^ Possessors of a spiritual nature, or possessing 
snirif unl vi'iour. Under this head, a passage is quoted from the 
^ Ij! Shoo-king, as follows : '' May you ^ j]]!^ the posses- 
sors of a spiritual nature, be enabled to help me, in saving th« 
millions of people." See Theology of the Chinese, page 56. 

Then follows a quotation from the fig g^ Book of Cert* 
monies, as follows : ''He held a general meeting of the nume- 
rous (doctors), in order to carry out this matter (of nourish- 
ing the asre); and then (by the influence of music) he affected 
"^ jji^ those v)ho ic^re possessed of a spiritual nature^ and 
elevated those who ^ ^ had a virtuous disposition." The 
commentators, on the passage referred to, differ as to the 
meaning of the term ^ ifi^ yew siiin, some referring it to 
the invisible beings, possessors of a spiritual nature, who as- 
sisted the house of Chow ; and others to the spirituality of the 
human mind: they consider the^ i|i$ possessing spirituality 
as antithetical to the '^ ^ no3sesf=ing virtue: and explain the 

phrase, thus: " )TJ$ W ^t> :^ jf ^ M^^il':tV^' 
spirituality her^ refers to the impalpable ethereality of the 
mind, and virtue to the substantial principles of the heart." 

Aline from the poems of ;^ ^ Too-fob, follows: ''When 
literary compositions ^f|$ possess some vigour of thought^ 
they connect the writer with the ^ j^ possessors of right 



principles." Again, "In reading he exhausted the myriad of 
books, and when he put his pen to paper 5U ^ j^^ it seemed 
as if there was a 'peculiar vigor or spiril(in his productions.)'* 

A line from the poem of 75 Ji Shih-kcae is then quoted, 
" When a man repeatedly succeeds at the literary examina- 
tions, we know that his mode of thinking ^ j[(^ possesses 
some vi^or.^^ 

4. P^ i[l^ To cause the spirits to descend, or to send down 
spiritual influences. Here the lexicogra[)Iiers first quote 
^''♦^ Wi ^ Book of Odes, as follows ; " Wlien the mountains 
l^ipl^ sent down their spiritual influences, ihey produced 
the celebrated Foo and Shin." The commentator on this 
passage explains fllf Shin by fi^ ^ shhi ling, thus showing 
that he understood the term as meaning spirit. 

In the Record of ceremonies and music, connected with the 
Han dynasty, it is said, that ";J5J ^ ^ Shuh-aun-t'hung 
was a musician, who attended to the music of the ancestorial 
temj)le ; when the chief offerer of prayer went to meet tlie 
manes at tlie gate of the ancestorial temple, he played the 
tune called " Happv arrival," which was the tune anciently 
played when 1^ |l|j ^/icy induced the spirits to descend.^* 
From the mention here made of the ancestorial temple it is 
evident, that the spirits referred to were the manes of ancestors. 

In an ode written by '^ j|Q^(/hoo-kwaiig-he, 011 sacrific- 
ing at the altar dedicated to the director of the wind, we read as 
follows: " The tents by night enabled them to carry on the 
business, and the altars by day tended ^ i^t' ^^ cause the 
spirits to descend. '^ 

5- wkW "I^'ie spirits of the mountains. An extract is here 
inserted from the ^[J ^ writings of Chin, who says, that 
"the president of the four mountains was an officer of the first 
rank, who attended to the arrangement of the four seasons; 
on which account he was put to manage the business of 
perambulating the mountains of tlie various quarters. In 
the time of Yaou, a person of the surname of ^ Keang filled 



this office, whose virtue was such as to please the J^ ^ 
spirits of the mountains, and bring down blessings and 
prosperity on his descendants." 

An extract from the nortliern history, speaking of ^ ^ 
Tsuy-tseih, says: "In the fourth year of^'^Ta-nee, 
the magistrate of ^ ^9 Lan-teen, named 3E ift Wang-tan, 
obtained in the hills of Lan4een, a jade stone, in the shape 
of a man, three or four inches long, whicli circumstance he 
reported to the emperor. His majesty by proclamation, en- 
quired of his various ministers, but none of them knew 
what it portended. Tsuy-tseih, however, replied, saying, 
** I have read in the account of the ancestorial temple, at ^J 
1^ Sung-kaou hill, drawn up by the director of agriculture, 
in the |£ Wei state, called S 7C ^-B Leu-yuen-ming, that 
there exists a jpjp J^ spiritual being, whose body is made of 
jade stone, several inches long, which sometimes appears, 
and is sometimes hidden ; when it does appear, however, it 
causes th? ruling dynasty to be long perpetuated. I humbly 
submit, that your Majesty has complied with the will of 
Heaven, and acted according to the wishes of the people, 
in fixing your capital at fgj ^f^ Sung-16 ; thus the ^ fl^ 
spi?'it of the mountain has appeared, and I beg leave to offer 
you my congratulations.'" 

In a work entitled ^ ^ ^]^Yew-yang-tsa-tsoo, we 
re?Td as follows : '' A nun of the Taou sect, named ]^ 3^ 
^ K'hang-tsze-hea, once said, tfiat in a dream, she was 
taken by some one aside, when it was told her, that accord- 
ing to a divine charm, she was appointed to hold the office 
of general, to inspect the southern mountain ; she was then 
invested in a suit of armour, made of golden chain-work, and 
caused to mount on horseback, when followed by more than 
a thousand persons, she went on the road lowardi the south ; 
in a few moments, she arrived at the place, whereupon the 
W^ 1$ spirit of the hill, came out to meet her, and made obei- 
sance in front of her horse ; by the crowing of the cock, 



however, she was awakened, and found that a beard, com- 
prising scores of hairs, had already grown on her chin." 

In a fugitive piece, composed by |^ fj ^ Pib-hing- 
keen, on ruling the empire without disturbing one's robes, 
we read, " Conform to ^ f^ the genii of the stars, in order 
to marshal your generals ; influence the |§5 ^^ spirits of the 
inountains, iu order to produce ministers of state." Here 
the genii of the stars are antithetical to the spirits of the 
mountains, and as the former expression denotes a species of 
elf or fairy, so the latter must be taken to be something 
of the same kind. See Morrison's Syllabic Dictionary, p. 916. 

When 3§ ^J^ Chang-pin accompanied ^ HP 4^ the 
chamberlain Selh, on his journey to Kcang-chow, he made 
the following couplet : '* With a steadfast countenance hand 
down 'J^~^ tbc imperial will, and with an anxious heart 
supplicate ^ Ji^ the mountain spirits.'" 

6. J^Sfl^ ^'*'*^^^"^ ^'^® approach of the spirits. A cou- 
plet composed by jtg ^ ^ Lcii-sze-taou, runs thus : 
" With the western flute, you accord to the time, and with 
the southern wine-cup, you ^E ]0 ^reet the spirit." 

Wiien ^ ]4f -j^ Hwang-fob-yen escorted the prefect ^ 
Le on his journey to Chaou-chow, he wrote the following 
couplet : *' In the city to which you go, may you have abun- 
dance of wind and rain, and may the manners of the place 
be such that in the night season you will have to jPp||^ 0-/-^^^ 
the approach ofspirits.^^ 

7. ^ OT "^'^^ hundred spirits. Under this head, we 
have a quotation from the ^^ ^£ Book of Odes, as follows : 
" (The emperor by sacrificing) has induced ^ j[(^ the hun- 
dred spirits to approach and be soothed, even to (the genii 
of) the rivers and high hills," The commentator on this 
passage, says, " When we see the regulations and commands 
which the emperor issues, at which all the princes tremble • 
and the sacrifices which he offers, to which "j^ jji^ all the 
spirits Boothcdly apj>roach ; also, when we see the poets 



8 

assigned, the prayers offered up, with the sacrificial animals, 
and offerings of silk presented ; and, that tlie spirits of the 
deep rivers and high mountains are thereby invariably in- 
fluenced and induced to come — then we perceive that our 
sovereign is lord both of the spirits and men. Now when 
both spirits and men receive their appointments to various 
posts in this way, we may be sure that the son of ^ 5C 
bright heaven is none otiier than this our sovereign." See 
Theology of the Chinese, pa^e 67. 

Then we have an extract from the ^ ^ Family Sayings 
of Confucius, to the following eff3Ct : " ^ Yii, the first em- 
peror of the Hea dynasty, was diligent and well-furniahed, 
being able to complete his virtue, without interfering with 
his meritorious work, and^ thus became ^ pp jJS S ^^® 
lord of the hundi^ed spirits ; while by his kindness, he 
showed himself to be the father of the people." 

From a work entitled ^ ^ f E ^ Collection of Miscel- 
laneous Fragments, we have tne following extract : '' Fuh-he 
comprehensively viewing^ the myriad of visible objects, offer- 
ed sacrifices to the ^{jj^ various spirits (which he supposed 
to possess them ;) thus the people acknowledged his sagelike 
qualities, and hence he was denominated JQ^ !^ Paou-he, 
the slaughterer of sacrificial victims." 

Then follows the ode of^;^ |^Chang-shw6, thus : " The 
chariot of the sun arrived at the palace gateway, and the im- 
perial streets were grand, as if they belonged to the "§" jj^ 
hundred spirits.^^ 

In a record of a new palace, drawn up by [1} ]^ ^{5 Shan- 
heuen-king, ii is said, that " the"^ijjt^ various spirits guard- 
ed it, g^ ^ all the ethereal ones were arranged in order ; 
lW ^^ ^he aged genii stood erect in it like storks ; and the 
JJ gf|| doctors of reason adorned it like pure icicles." Here 
the various spirits are antithetical with the ethereal ones : of 
which latter class, Morrison says, that they are " those of 
the sect of Taou, who have put off their corporeal figure, and 



become a kind of spiritual genii.'' Syllabic Dictionary, p. 63. 
8. JUltll^ Pcesenibiiiig' spiritual beings. h\ illustration 
of this phrase we have firr^t a quotation from the |g; ^ 
Book of Rites ; " Clearness and intelligence being possessed 
by the sage in his own person, his mental energies are ^^ 
jfl^ like those of spiritual beings:''' See Theology of ihe 
Chinese, page 100. 

A quotation from history, referring to the period of the five 
(so-called) divine rulers of antiquity, then follows : " The di- 
rine ruler Yaou was extensively meritorious, in benevolence 
he was like Heaven, and in knowledge he j^ ft^ resembled 
spiritual heings.^^ 

In an irregular poem, entitled pg ^ the Western Metro- 
polis we read: "(The capilal) was excellent and glorious, 
beautifully adorned and brightly illumined, so J hat whether 
one looked up or down, it Jp j|^ resembled (the abode of) 
spiritual beings:^ 

A dramatic piece called ^ ^ the Guest's Reply, says, 
*'Hewa« glorious like the sun, and dignified yX\ fl^J as 
sp iri tual b eings. ' ' 

In the ode of ^^ Yii tsfng, we read, " Of old the excel- 
lent government was jjfj Jfi^ «5 //(conducted by) spiritual 
beings.'^ 

In a memorial written in praise of Ching-te, of the Han 
dynasty, we read, '• When Ching-te gave audience to the peo- 
ple, he was deep and still, noble and dignified, y^ ^\i'j UJ:: 
ihe spiritual beings ; and thus may be said to have been 
abundantly majestic, according to the uiual demeanour of an 
emperor," 

An irregular poem on (he ^ ^ Chung-nan hills, written by 
i^ ^ Pan-koo, containi the following : '' The driving clouds 
and misty vapours were ^ ^ ^ i|^ like demons and 
''ike spi?Hts " 

^ ^ T'hoo-foo sayt, in one of his odes : '' The tran- 
. quillity resulting from good government is like tliat of water, 

B 



10 

and the decisioni come to by the imi)erial favour ^ |^ re- 
semhle those of spiritual beings.^'* 

9. ^ ifl^To honour spiritual beings. The ^gfiBook of 
Rites has the following passage : " The subjects of the gj 
Yin dynasty !^ i|!^ honoured spiritual beings^ and led on the 
people to serve them." The commentator on this passage 
says, "The men of Yin led the people to regard spiritual be- 
ings, which were beyond comprehension, and to disregard 
ceremonies, which were easy to be understood : hence the 
dissoluteness and disquiet manifested by the people were the 
results of a veneration and ^fl* regard for these spiritual 
heingsy See Theology of the Chinese, page 101. 

10. ?^ 1^ To respect spiritual beings. Here the f^ f £ 
Book of Rites is again referred to : " The principles of the 
^f Hea dynasty, consisted in honouring ((he virtuous na- 
ture) decieed by Heaven, also in ^ ^serving demons and 
§Jj fl^ respecting spiritual beings, while tliey kept them at a 
distance." Again, '' The rulers of Chow honoured ceremo- 
nies, and laid much stress on liberality, while they ^ _J^ 
served the demons, and ^ fl^ respected spiritual beings^ 
but kept them at a distance." Ibid. 

11. "5^ 1$ The spirits of heaven. Under this head, the 
^ 1^ Book of Ceremonies under the Chow dynasty is 
quoted^ as follows : "The office of the ^^\^ Chief Ba- 
ron was to attend to the national rites observed towards the 
5^ 1$ spirits of heaven, J^ ^ the manes of men, and the 
J:^^ spirits of earth, in order that he might assist the 
monarch in the establishment of the country." See Theology 
of the Chinese, page 159: and Reply to Dr. Boone's Essay, 
p.p. 21, 23, where it is shewn, that the ^ ijl^ T'heen-shln, 
are called by the Chinese Commentator, ;^ ^ ^ T heen- 
che-hng, spirits of heaven. 

Then follows a quotation from a chapter of the same book 
of ceremonies under the Chow dynasty, called the ^/f ^ ^ 
Great Musician, wlio is directed ' to play off in the key called 



11 

^ ^ Hwang-chung, lo harmonize ii in his song with the 
key called "J^ Q Ta-leu, and to exhibit the dance called 
@ P^ Yun-mun, when they sacrificed lo ^ |j^ the spirits 
of heaven^ For som^i explanation of the notes in mu- 
sic, above referred to, see the Translation of the Shoo- king, 
page, 21; and 34—38. 

Another quotation, from the J^ ^ Ciiow Book of Cere- 
monies, is as follows : •' When the music has been played 
through six changes, the y^ Jj|^ celestial spirits ail descend, 
and the rites may then be observed towards them." See 
Theology of the Chinese, p. p. 160, 161. 

We have next a quotation from a historical work, called^ 
7^ ® Fung-shen-shoo. wherein it is said, that " A cer- 
tain emperor, wanting to hold intercourse with spiritual be- 
ings, built the palace of "Iff -^ the sweet fountain ; in the 
midst of which he made a room for the altar, and delineated 
thereon the spirits of htaven, earth, and the great unity ; 
into this he caused the sacrificial implemcuts to be brought, 
that he might induce the 5^1$ celestial spirits to approach." 
The historian says, however, that though he resided there 
a year, the spirits did not come. 

Then we have another quotation from the Ceremonies of 
the Chow dynasty : '' The 'j^ — Great Unity is the most 
honourable among tl.e "J^ |^ spirits of Heaven.'' 

Also a quotation from the :^ tK BE Ciiang-shwuy-soo, 
*' It is the practice of western nations lo minister to the ^ 
Jjip celestial spirits who preside over lung life." 

12. i^|l|lTo regulate the spirits. A passage in which 
this phrase occurs is found in the Book of Ceremonies of the 
Chow dynasty : '' The chief minister of state, by means of 
the eight arrangements, managed the capital cities of the de- 
pendant princes ; the first of these arrngements referred lo sa- 
crifices, wherewith ^ to regulate j[l$ the spirits.^* 

13. y^ jjj^ To manage the spirits. Here we have ano- 
ther quotation from the Chow Book ol Ceremonies : " The 



12 

keeper of records attended to the records of the country and 
cf all other things : th ^ records which referred to the J^ |j^ 
inanagenient of spiritual beings^ were the first in order, and 
those which respected the people came next." 

14. ^ j[[^ By fixing the mind to influence mysteriously : 
or to preserve the mind. In the former of the above senses, 
this phrase is used by ^ ^ Mencius : "If the superior 
man does but pass through a region, be renovates it ; but if 
he "^ fixes his mind thereon, he jjj^ inflicences it in a mys- 
terious manner. ^^ The commenfator on this passage, says, 
" that If Shin here means IP ^ ^ "Sj '1^1 mijsterious 
and beyond comprehension.''^ See Theology of the Chi- 
nese, p.p. 41, 42. 

In the second sense ^iven, the above phrase occurs in anir- 
reg:ilar poem by ^ ^ Pan-koo, onshe manifestation of the 
will : " Amongst the hills and rallies, there are sequestered 
spots, and by maintaining perfect stillness, ^ jj]^ the mind 
is preserved in equanimity^ 

15. ^ 1$ On wearying the spirits. Under this head, 
we have a quotation from history, with referrence to the ^ 
Tsin state, as follows : " The ^ Tartars sent ^ ^ Yew- 
yu to pay a visit to the ^ Tsin country ; when ^W-^ 

•f^ .' ' .iJV i:>> ^-^ 

Muh, the duke of Tsin, shewed him his vast pile of royal 
buildings. Yew-yu said, supposing these to have been the 
work of J^ demons, it would have ^ f|^ wearied their 
spirits, (to erect them) ; or supposing them to have been the 
work of men, it would have ^ ^ distressed the people (to 
construct them.)" 

A quotation from ^ ^ Chwang-tsze, comes next : <' ^ 
3^ ^ Tseu-woo-kwei said, I was born amidst poverty and 
meanness, and do not dare to eat your highness' rich pro- 
visions, lest I should ^ ^ trouble your highness. To 
which the prince replied, What do you say ? it will give no 
trouble to me, it will only ^ trouble your own |1^ spii^it 
af»d J}^ body to partake of it." 



13 

In the above quotations, ffj^ Shin ia evidently to be under- 
stood in the sense of spirit, animal spirits, and vigour ; in 
the first the harrassing of the spirits is spoken of, which the 
demons would experience, if tfiey had to erect such build- 
ings ; and in the second, spirit is opposed to body, in a way 
not to be mistaken, thereby fixing the sense of jf[^ Shin to 
denote the human mind. 

1^- ^ W ^^^ eight spirits, or spiritual ones. A quo- 
tation is here made from the historical work before referred 
to, called the^ ^ ^ Fung-shen-shoo. As, however, iho 
sense is not fully expressed in tiie brief extract given in the 
Thesaurus, we shall quote the whole paseagt : " /V W — ' 
9 5Co 2E OT ^ ^0°^ '^® eight spirits, the first is that of 
heaven, presiding in a temple at T'heen-tse : .mi ^ Jq7^ 
i ^^ ^ f^f, ^hc second is that of earth, presiding in a 
temple at T'hae-shan : the third is that of war, presiding 
in a temple at Ch'he-yew : the fourth is that of the infe- 
rior principle of nature, presiding in a temple at San-shan ; 
the fiftfi is that cf the superior principle of nature, presiding 
in a temple at Fow; the sixth is that of the moon, presiding 
in a temple at liaii-shan ; the seventh is that of the sun, 
presiding in a temple at Ching-slian ; the eighth is that 
of the four season?, presiding in a temple at Lang-yay. 

Then follows an extract, from the J^,^^^ Collection of 
miscellaneous fragments ; " The concubine of '^^ Tc-kiih, 
named ^p j^ Tiiow-too, had eight dreams, and bore eight 
sons, who were called by the people of that age, the J\, tw 
eight marvellous ones; they were also called the J\^^^ 
eight bright ones, (bright in the sense of clear) ; they were 
further called /^. ^ the eight splendid ones ; also the f^ 
yj eight strong ones ; and all this, because they were mar- 
vellous, strong, splendid, and clear, assisting to perfect the 
myriad forms of things, and the millions of the people, so 
that their marvellous wisdom was handed down to posterity." 

The same work contains also the following passage : " A 
spirit made knpwn to ^ Yu, the scheme of the eight 



14 

diagrams, round which there wert J^^ eight spirUs in 
attendance. Yu said, ^ ^ Hwa-seu brought forth a sage- 
like son ; was that you ? To which the spirit replied, Hwa- 
seu was the spirit of the nine rivers, and being a female 
brought me forth. The spirit then gave Yu a pearly 
book.'-' 

In a hymn supplicating rain, made by g|j ^')g Seay-t'eaou^ 
we read as follows : " Arouse the ^ ^ seven bright ones, 
and instruct the J\^ f(^ eight spiritual ones ; throw open 
heaven's portals, and pass over the milky way." 

17'. in Wt 'I'he three spirits. An extract is here given 
from the ^ ^ JjJ fB j£ Book of the Han dynasty, re- 
garding sacrifices, thus: "When the sacrifices offered at 
'^ ^ Kan-tseuen, ^ |^ Fun-yin, and |^ 5 S^ Yung- 
woo-che, were first established, there were in each temple ]Jj^ 
IK spiritual beings^ who were influenced by and responded 
to them ; up to the time of the emperor |^ jg^ Wob-seuen, 
the ceremonies observed in serving these m jjt^ three spirits^ 
were regular and complete." 

^ ^ ^ ^ J]j^ ^ In an account of sacrifices, found 
in the Books of the later Han dynasty, we read : " To the 
central inclosure at the time of offering the mid-winter sacri- 
fice, there were four gates, and at every gate eighteen mats ; 
to the outer inclosure, there were also four gates, and at 
every gate thirty-six mats ; making together 216 mats, all 
made of rushes ; to take charge of each mat, there were 
ZH iji^ three spirits. ^^ 

In an irregular poem, on the palace of y ^ the sweet 
fountain, occurs the following: " The emperor, solemn and 
still, living at his precious terrace and retired dwelling, with 
the ornamented carvinsfs and beautiful flower-work, amidst 
his deep chambers and concealed recesses, is able by this 
means to purify his heart and cleanse his soul, to collect 
his energies and dispense his favours, shewing his sense 
of the goodness of nature, and greetmg with welcome the 



1^ 

^ ffl^ three kinds of spiyHts :" theac, according to the com- 
mentator, are the spirits of heaven, earth, and men. 

18. :^ iji^ Searching out the spirits. Among the q* 
^ books of the Tsi'n dynasty, we meet wiih the works of 
"ijr ^ Kan-pabu, who says, " I selected and made a collec- 
tion of all the marvellous and extraordinary things, coimec- 
ted with spirit'*, and all the changes and transformations of 
men and things both in ancient and modern times, and 
have called it '\^ f|$ a thorough searching of the spirits ; 
I shewed thii work, amounting to 20 volumes, to ^J 'j^ 
LSw-tan, who said. You, Sir, may well be called the chro- 
nicler of the ^ spirits:' There was also one '^Jj^'^ 
Chang-ping-wan, who had a work called the mysterious 
book, devoted to ^ f\^ the searching out of all the spirits^' 

19. 1$ ^ The spirit of money. Among the ^ Tsm 
books, are the works of ^ ^ Lob-pabu, who said, '' Having 
been grieved at the covetousness of the age, I concealed my 
name, and published a discourse on ^ Jjlp the spirit of 
money, in order to expose it to ridicule." 

In the ode of 3^ ^ Wei-chwang, occurs the following 
couplet : " When trouble comes, we acknowledge the influ- 
ence of wine ; and when poverty goes, we feel ^ fl^ 
the spirit of money (creeping over us.)" 

20. ^ lli$ Thoroughly understanding, or penetrating the 
epirit. In a work on iielecting and promoting men, written 
in the Tang dynasty, we read as followH ' '' One Jj^^ ^ '^ 
Shin-ke-tsze presented a momorial, in which he said, ' the 
way to conduct a literary examination is to write down, 
judge, record, and calculate, the elevation and depression of 
■tyle in words and sentences ; but if the chancellor does not 
J3 ijl^ thoroughly understand the spirit (of composition) he 
cannot attain to this.' " 

^iS "?* T'heen-ym-tsze said, '•' Fasting is said to be the 
way to promote faith, and quietly dwelling alone the way to in- 
crease knowledge, while retention and reflectioQ lead to the 



16 

attain meat of wisdom ; these are the four aveniies whereby 
ajg, J^ we penetrate the spirit, hetice. they are called fUf fl^ 
spiritual methods. 

In a work entitled [^ ^ ^ Wj^ the arousing and affect- 
ing of the invisible world, we read, that when ' 5§^ *®' 
Chang-yen-shang undertook the office of judge and chan- 
cellor, he found that there was one large prison, in which 
considerable injustice had been practiced, and regarding 
which he frequently held his wrist in much perplexity ; when 
he came ii? to the judgment-hall, therefore, he eummoned the 
goaler, and sternly admonished him, saying, This prison 
ha3 been in its present state for a long time, in ten days I 
must have it cleared. The next morning he espied on the 
table of his office a note, containing the foUlowing words. 
* 30,000 strings of cash, but pray do not enquire into the affairs 
of this prison.' At this the judge was very angry. Next 
day, however, he saw another note, on which was writ- 
ten, '50,000 strings of cash.' The judge was still more enraged, 
and ordered that the business should be settled in two days. 
The next day there was another note, with ' 100,000 strings 
of cash' written on it. The judge than desisted from his inqui- 
ries. His disciples, watching their opportunity, enquired the 
cause; to whom he replied, 'When a sum mounts up so as 
\-0^J\^ penetrate even to the spirits, there is no affair that 
may not be turned • I was afraid lest some calamity should 
come upon me, and could not but desist from my inquiiies.' " 

In ^> §g Kw5 po's ^^ ^ Praise of pepper, occurs the 
following : " By taking it constantly, without cessation, you 
may enlarge your perceptions, so as ^ jp^ thoroughly 
to understand the spirits. " 

In ^ |i^ Le chaou's ode of eight stanzas, addressed 
to ^ ^ Too-fob, occurs the following couplet: " In ^ ^ 
K'hob-hcen (where Labu-keun was born) so late as the time 
of !/fc ^H Kwang-ho, the tablet (to his memory) was still 
standing; the writing whereof was so extremely thin and stiff, 
that it ^ j[|^ penetrated the spirit (to look at it.) 



17 

21. ^ fi$ Vacuity and immateriality. In illustration of 
of this phrase we have an extract from the Taouist classic, 
called ^ ^ 0Ta6u-tih-king, as follows : " (Cultivate) ^ 
vacuity bo as to reach jj|^ immateriality^ ant! thus attain 
to immortality ;" the commentator quoted in the Thesaurus 
says, that this refers to " the 51$ immateriality which is in tlie 
midst of vacuity." On this passage sec more in the Theo- 
logy of the Chinese, page 191. 

In the ode of ]^ ^ Yii-sin, we read, " The essential and 
the mysterious suggest the idea of the ^ ij{^ obscure origin ; 
the empty and the non-existing lead to the cultivation of 
i^ 1$ vacuity and immateriality^ See Theology of the 
Chinese, page 191. 

The ode of 5§ ^ Cliang-shwo, also says, " To attain to 
^ ^ purity and emptiness, first cultivate /gp )|j^ vacuity 
and i)iimaterialiiyy 

The ode of ;^ ^ Too-fob is again quoted : " If -^ jfl^ 
vacuity and immateriality tend to immortality, of what use 
will, it be to cultivate one's stupid intellect." 

22. 5i^#Thc flying away of the spirit. ^ 5* ^ 
Kwan-yin-tsze says, *' Since we know that the affairs of 
this life are like the figments of a dream, we may allow ^ 
jjjjl our spirits to fly about after whatsoever we see." 

The ode of ^ '^ Le-ho has the following couplet : 
*' Though we ma/ wish to represent them as enduring for 
thousands of years, the i^ Jg operations of the Divine Being 
are rapid as the ^ ^[^ flight of mind/' 

23. ^ 1^ To keep in or control the spirit. ^ ^ ^ 
Kwei-kuh-tsze said, " When one is able to follow and com- 
ply, he can in obedience to nature ^ jfi^ control his spirit:' 

In the "S ^ H xB. YevT-yang-tSea-tsoo, we read, " Tor- 
toises having no ears, can -^ %^ keep in their spirits.''' 

24. 7II 1^ The spirit of the sea. In an ode called the ^ 
^ Golden Casket, written by ^^C ^ T'hae-kung, we read, 
*' The ^ j^' ^ 1^ spirit of the southern sea is called 

C 



18 

JIS §$ Chuh-yung ; the spirit of the eastero sea is called 
^ ^ Kow-mang ; the spirit of the northern sea is called 
^ 3^ Chuen-heiih ; and the spirit of the western sea is 
called ^ ^ Jiih-ahow.'^ See Theology of ihe Chinese, 
page 74. 

The H ^ ^ San-tsg-leo Record, says that '' ^ M 
Che-hwang wished to construct a stone bridge in the midst 
of the sea ; but as this was not within the compass of human 
power, the 3§ ifi^ 5pmV o/ ^Ae 5ea set up the buttresses for 
him : Che-hwang was grateful for this kindness, and doing 
honour to the spirit, sought an interview ; the spirit of the sea 
replied, saying, ' My form k ugly, and you must not delineate 
it ; on condition of your not attempting this, I will meet with 
your Majesty.' Che-hwang then constructed a stone pier, upon 
which he went out about ten miles into the sea, and obtained 
an interview. His attendants did not dare to move their 
hands, but a clever fellow among them clandestinely deline- 
ated the form which presented itself with his foot. The spirit 
was angry, and charging his Majesty with a breach of faith, 
departed." 

The ode of {^ ^ Tseu-ling on snow, is then quoted : 
'* To-morrow morning, outside the palace gate, you will see 
the chariot of J^ jjj^ the marine spirit.'^ . 

25. /jC )|^ ^^^ essence of water, or water sprites. *^ -JT 
Kwan.tsze has the following remark : '• (Moisture) being 
collected between heaven and earth, stored up in the myriad 
of things, produced both from metals and minerals, and 
accumulated in all living animals, is therefore called ^ jjjj^ 
the essence of watsr.^^ 

In a ^ classic written on the "gf ancient -^f mountains 
and 'j^ rivers, occurs the following : "-^ Yii, in regulating 
the waters, thrice came to )j|sl ^ Tung-pih hill, but could 
not succeed in accomplishing his work there ; being enraged 
thereat, -^ Yu summoned ^ ^ the hundred spirits, and 
from amongst the number imprisoned ^^ ^ ^ H6-mung- 



19 

she and ^ *^ Kl Chang-«hang-sh^ : by this means he ob- 
tained possession of the "^^ water sprite of the J^^|^ 
Hwae whirlpool, called ^^ j]j)y Wo6-che-ke, and removed 
him to the foot of the ^ Kwei mountain, situated between 
the ^^ Hwae and ^0 Sze rivers." 

In the ode of ;|^P ^ 7C Lew-tsung-yuen, we read, that 
" When men use fowl's bones wherewith to prognosticate 
favourable years, they pay their obeisance to the ;^C jjjj^ 
water sprit es.^^ 

A couplet from the pen of 5M ^ Chang-tseTh runs thus : 
" One evening, on approaching tlie foot of fg [Xf the Tsing 
hill, I observed every family sacrificing to the ;^ jjjljl ivater 
sprites. ^^ 

26. J^ jfi^ The sprite of the Hwae river. See under the 
above head. In the sketch of an ode addressed to an ab- 
bot, called ^ ^ K'hnnof'kwang, by ^ ^ Wob-yung^ oc- 
curs the following : " ^ ^j Yii, the king of Hea, locked up 
^^^ the sprite of the Hwae river] and when it came 
out from the bottom of the waves, the monarch seized 
it with his hand." 

27'. ^ lTl$ Union of the spirit. la the writings of the 
5lJ "^ various learned men of China, we meet with the fol- 
lowing from jfc^-?- K'hang-chwang-tsze : '* My |§ 
body is united to my 1^^ mind, my J\a!» mind is connected 
with my M, spiritual energies, and my ^ spiritual ener- 
gies are ^ f|l^ i?i unison with my more ethereal spirit, 
while my |^ ethereal spirit is closely allied to ^ nothing." 

1^ rfi ^ Kwan-yin-tsze said '' ^^^^ The union of the 
spirit is i^Wi incomprehensible, and §g 31 '^^^ connec- 
tion with reason Iff >7 illimitable." 

In the Records of '^ ^ various dipine rulers and kin^ 
it is iaid, *' Those sovereigns whose transformations are ^ 
^ connected with the marvellous, are called ^ Hwanga, 
mythological rulers ; those whose virtue corresponds to that of 
heaven and earth, are called ^ Tes, divine rulers : while those 



20 

who are themselves united by benevolence and righteous- 
ness, are called 3P wangs, common kings." 

"" • "^^ *A*7 :S4* 

In the conversation of ^ ^ fi Mung-k'he-peih, occurs 
the following : ''(In the combinations formed by) the /^ "36 
^ horary characters of the celestial stems, (in which ■£ 
Jin occurs six times), with the ~p Hi ^ horary characters 
of the terrestrial branches, (which amount to twelve) ; it ap- 
pears, that the character ^ hae, which is called ^ B^ the 
mounting up of brightness, is the ruling character of the first 
moon ; (because in the six combinations of the terrestrial 
branches, that character unites with ^ yin, which is the 
distinctive mark of the first moon) ; and the character ]t3^ 
suh, which is called 5C mt ^^® celestial chief is the ruling 
character of the second moon, (because in the said combina- 
tions, that character unites with ^fl mabu, which is the dis- 
tinctive mark of the second moon) ; hence the ancients call- 
ed them the ^ |$ tmion of the spirits,^' The references 
here made to the Chinese system of astrology, render th© 
passage dark, without the additional phrases above inserted. 

28. ^jp The congealing of the spirits. ^^Chwang- 
tsze has the following remark : " When the will is undivi- 
ded in its exercise, the |^ ani77ial spirits are as it were 
^§ congealed^ 

In the ode of jj^ ^ Kaou-shen. occurs the following 
couplet : " The blue haze on the ^^^ Tiing-ting hills, 
towards the approach of evening, ^ jjj^ freezes up one^s 
spi?Hts.^^ 

29. ^ f\^ To hold in the spirits. Another remark 
of ^ 5^ Chwang-tsze, is to the following effect: 
»When in tha twilight of evening, silent and still, 
there is nothing to be seen or heard, we ^ 1$ hold in our 
spirits, in order to listen (to the voice Heaven) ; our bodies 
then assume an erect posture." Again, " When a man pos- 
sesses a pureness of mind, which approaches the unsophisti- 
cated, and an absence of all action, bordering on artlessness, 



21 

and thus ^'^ coalescing with his'nature, and ^fl$ hold, 
ing in his spirit^ he goea abroad and mixes up with the 
things of this world, would he be to you an object of appre- 
hension ?" 

30. J:: flhp The mounting aloft of the spirit. ^ ^ 
Chwang-tsze again says, " When jl W ^ the spirit 
mounts aloft, and light with all the forms of being vanish 
away, this may be called the splendour of brightness." The 
commentary, also quoted in the Thesaurus, says, "When 
the spirit nwunts aloft in its aspirations, the light of the sun 
and moon is viewed as if beneath our feet." 

31. i^ iS^ The liberation of the spirit. The same wri- 
ter says, " When ^ j(j> the mind is set free, and ^ Jj^ 
the spirit liberated, illitimable is the prospect, a^ if one had 
no ^ embodied sovl.^^ 

32. ^ 5J$ The animal spirita, animal enerc^y, animated 
gleam, &c. The same writer is a^ain quoted, as follows : 
*' With regard to the five tastes, the ^ jfj^ animal spirits 
must be moved, and the i\y> ^ thoughts of the mind in- 
fluenced, before we can acknowledge what they are." Or in 
other words, sensation and reflection must go before know- 
ledge. 

In the same writer, we meet with the following quotation : 
y^ H^ Labu-tan said, " By fasting expand your ^(Jj) mind, 
purify your ^ |^ animal spirits, and brush up your know- 
ledge of things." 

Again, " The bright grows out of the dark, the orderly is 
produced by the unseen, ihe,^^^^^ animal spirits follow 
the dictates of reason, visible form originates in invisible 
essence, and the myriad of things mutually generate by 
means of visible forms." 

In the ^ ^ Spring and Autumn Record, referring to the 
^ Woo and |§ Yue countries, we read, that " Mt ^H ?" 
Fung-hoo-tszp once went to the ^ Woo country, where he 
saw ^ 5^ "5^ Gbw-yay-tsze and ^ ^ Kan-tseang, mak- 



22 

jng three iron s words, the first was called ^ ^ Lung-yuen, 
the second ^ P^ T'hae-o, and the third IC ^fil Kung-poo. 
Fung-hoo-tsze eent in^ a report of these to the king of ^ 
Tsobj Vho'^on seeing the ']'^ ^'|p animated gleam, bursting 
from these blades, was highly delighted." 

In an irreg-ular poem on the JJ "^ love of beauty, written 
by ^ ^ jT Tang-too-tsze, occurs the following : "(Lovers) 
merely inlQiuence each other by little words, while their f^ 
jjj^ animal spirits lean on and accede to one another." 

In^ an ode which ^ 3E|5 Le-ching inscribed to ^ ^ 
Tei-t'ho, occurs the following line : "He has the f^ fj^ 
animal energy of a horse or a dragon, and the beauty of a 
sea-stork." 

In the poem of ^ jg L6-yin there is the following line : 
*^When the dew collects at early dawn we first perceive 
the ^ 1^ animal vigour of the stork." 

An ode written by a Buddhist priest, called f^^ Sew- 
miih, has the? following couplet : " In the wide expanse when 
the autumnal showers cease, waking up from sleep we feel 
our 1^ tji^ animal spirits invigorated." 

The ode of pjj ^ Kwo-yiih contains the following line : 
*'0n several occasions I have thought in my dreams of the ^^ 
fjip animated gleam that sparkles in the stem." 

33. ^ 1$ To quiet the spirit. ^ ^ An apothegm says, 
<*0f all the acts of filial piety, none is greater than the -^^ 
soothing of one's parents ; and in order to soothe one's 
parents, there is no better method than first to ^ |* soothe 
one's ovm spirits." 

34. f§ tw To communicate the spirit or animation of 
anything. tS Sl The maxims of the age say : "^ -^ 
]^Ko6-chang-k'hang(a famous painter) once drew a portrait, 
and for several years, forbore to finish the pupil of the eye. 
To some who enquired the reason, Ko6 replied, ' The ug- 
liness or beauty of the limbs have originally no bearing upon 
the excellence of the performance; but the '^^ co77immii' 



eating of ayihnation^ and the ^ jf^ conveying of expression, 
altogether depend on the touching up of this little spot.' " 

In a general description of Chinese poetical authors, we 
have tfic following: " The |^ \\^ air and spirit oi ^ "j;^ 
Q Le-t'hae-pih were elevated and vigorous ; but ^ ^ 
Shabu-li ng, in the following line, ' The setting moon di- 
lates the chamber beams,' has j^ |fp perpetuated ilte very 
spirit of T'hae-pih's poetry." 

In an ode on the portraying of the decayed trees, bamboos, 
and rocks which we may observe in our walks, written by 
^^ Si\^ Soo-shih, occurs the following couplet : " Old TfT 
K'hb was able ^ ^ to convey an accurate idea of the bam- 
boo, in hii pictures ; but young ^ P'ho can now ^fl^ com- 
municate the spirit of the bamboo, in his poetry." 

^ ^ S Yang-wan-le, celebrating the bamboo in his 
verse, says : " Suppose we had never been favoured with 
3sl ^ Wj* Wan-yu-k'hb, (ta delineate the bamboo) ; we 
should still have had the moon y^ )j\l^ to express the very 
spirit (of its shadow)." This thought is not unworthy of com- 
mendation ; the idea is, that had painters never lived to throw 
the image of the waving bamboo on their canvass, the moon 
would have accomplished the eume for us, by shadowing it 
on our floors. 

35. i^ jfl^ The needle fairy. In a ^ S IE Collection 
of Miscellaneous Fragments, we read, that '• ^ ^ 'j^ 
Wei-wan,te, changed the name of \ns favourite concu- 
bine g^ ^ ^Seih-ling-yunto ^^Yay-lae, ' itcomes 
by night;' this lady was celebrated for her needle-work, for 
although she dwelt in a deeply-shaded tent, she needed not 
the light of a candle, but could cutout and complete a gar- 
meat in no time : his majesty would not wear anything, un- 
less it had been cutout and worked by Yay-lae; so that 
the people in the palace called her ^ fi$ the needle fairy. ^^ 

36. ^ ^ The snake sprite. In the same:|^5^ Collection 
of Miscellaneous Fragments, we read, that '• when -^ Yii was 



24 

excavating the gjg ^g Lung-kwan hill, he espied afj^ sprite 
with a g^ snake's body and a human face. Yu took the 
opportunity of entering into conversation with this sprite, 
and the sprite shewed Yii a delineation of the eight diagranis, 
engraven on a golden plate. ^^ ^ )fl^ This sprite 
with a snake's body was fj^ ^ Fuh-he." 

ij^^ Too-muh, in a preface which he composed to bd 
prefixed to the writings of ^ ;^ "^ Le-chang-kelh, said, 
"(Compared with the writings of this gentleman), the stories 
about gaping whales, tortoises throwing stones, 4* ^ o^- 
like imps, and ^ f|$ snake-like sprites^ are hardly to 
be considered empty fables and lying inventions." 

37. J^ )]i$ The spirits of the wind. In a "^ S jg 
Record of strange things, we read, that '' ^ !^ ^ Tsuy- 
heuen-wei was sitting alone one night in spring, when sud- 
denly a number of female companions passed before him, 
who called themselves ^ ^ Yang-she, ^ ^ Le-she, ^ 
^ Taou-she, <fcc. There was also a crimfson-robed dam- 
sel, who said that her surname was -^ Shth, and iier name 
BSr ^ A-tsoo. Tiiey had scarcely seated themselves, be- 
fore the aunts of the ^ Fung family were reported to have 
arrived ; wine was then ordered, and the"|~ ^ ^ eighteen 
aunts in holding the cup upset the wine, and soiled A-tsoo's 
clothes. A-tsoo whisked her sleeve in a pet, and got up. 
The eighteen aunts said, we are only young damsels, sport- 
ing with wine. Whereupon they all retired. The next 
night they came again : when A-tsoo said, all we female 
companions dwell in this garden, and every year it is injured 
by blasts of fierce winds. I have constantly besought the 
eighteen aunts to afford us some protection ; last night 
I did not make myself agreeable to them, and thus find some 
difficu Ity in obtaing their aid; but if the scholar who lives here 
wishes to obtain their protection, he must make for us a red 
flag, with the sun, moon, and five planets delineated upon it : 
let him set up this flag to the east of the garden, and he will 



25 

escape further calamity. The scholar complied with this 
directio[i,and when the east wind shook the earth, none of the 
flowers in the garden were moved. He then understood that 
all the females he had seen were the^^ fairies of the various 
flowers, that A-tsoo was the celebrated pomegranate of ^ j\-\ 
Gnan-chow, and that the "T* J\ ^ eighteen aunts of the 
^ Fung family, were the j^ j[|lf spirits of the vnndy 

38- 7B flf The flower genius. In a ^ X M Record 
of Striinge Men, it is said, that '• ^p^ ^ ^ Sdng-shen-fob, 
was well-skilied in tiie art of planting, so that his ^ , j' 
Mow-tans (Peonies) were of a thousand sorts. Tlie i.^B-High 
Imperial One suaimuued him to i^^lj Le-shan, wheie lie 
planted 10,000 flowers, all of wiucli were different : so that 
the people of the palace called him ^ |jtp the flower genius.'" 

7C ^ ^ Yuen-haou-wan, in his ode on the apricot gar- 
den, says, " For the fragrant exhalations of morning, and the 
beautiful dyes of evening, we are indebted to ^ /Jjlp the 
gerduc of flowers ^ 

fgj ^ Kaou-k'he, in his ode on the plum blossom, says: 
*' When we view their scattered forms hangiog their lovely 
heads, we cannot help observing that ^l^\]^ the g enius of 
flowers has been out for a ramble."* 

39. -^ ili$ The union of spirits. In a piece written in ad- 
miration of sage-like sovereigns obtaining virtuous ministers, 
we meet with the following : " When such princes as 
Yaou, ^ Shun, i^ Yu, ^ T'hang, and ^ Wan with 
Woo, obtain such ministers as ^ Tselh, ^ See, ^ 
Kaou-yaou, ^^E-yin, and |^ ^ Led-wang. there is 
clearly to be seen at court the solemn demeanour of the 
sovereign and the orderly arrangement of his servants, ^ 
If collecting their energies, and %i^ uniting their spirits^ 
most evidently suited to one another." 

40. 1^ )Tl$ The wandering of spirits. ^ ^ Wang-paou, 
in his ^L M "'"^ considerations, says, " When the yL M 
nine ethereal ones mount aloft, there is ^ Jjl^ a rambling 

D 



26 

abroad of spirits, and when the daughters of muaic are siill, 
we observe the glimmerings of morning." 

In a work called ^ J^ Keae-chaou, we read *' In the 
tranquil and silent region, is the abode of J^fjl^ v)andering 
ghosts. ^^ 

In aleUer written by f.^f/J Fung-yen, with the view of 
persuading ^ ^ Chfng-yu. occurs the following sentence : 
" Truly but too seldom has '^ l^rny spirit raQuhled through 
the forests of liteiature, and ||J^ 'j^ my imagination rioted in 
the region of the mysterious." 

41. 7^S$ The six spirits. In the ;^ ^JC ^i"^ aspira- 
tions of ^ij [^ Lcw-heang, we meet with the following • 
*' Unite in sacrifice the (genii of the) five mountains, with 
the /v ^ eight intelligences (of the directions of the wiful); 
enquire of the jl^ ^ nine stars of Ursa Major, witli the '/^ 
jfl^ six spirits (of the cardinal points.)" 

42. .^ ifi^ ^^ ^®^^ ^^ ^^^ '^^^'* ^^® spirits. In a work 
called ^ ^^ >^ Fan-le-so, we read : " Expend aromatics 
and rich viands, in ordc^r to ^^ j[|^i win over the spirits \ also 
diligently look out for the precious stones and reeds (u8<*d in 
their service.") 

43. ^|!^ To withdraw one's spirit. From a work en- 
tilled ^ ^ ]^ Ta-pin-he, wc have the following extract : 
'' In solitude our though:;^' expand beyond the limits of the 
universe, while our researches penetrate into the minutest 
atom ; thus J^ i[[$ vnthdrawing our spirits in meditative 
reflection, we promote our own lons^evify." 

44. j^ 1^ To exhilarate one's spirits. In an irregular poem 
on amusements, we read : '' His sacred Majesfy in feasting feels 
happy, but does not iridulge to excess ; by X^i]]^ exhilarating 
his spirits he retards the approach of old age, which is the 
true method of prolonging life." 

45. J§ )]]$ The fairy of the river Lo. In a preface to an 
irreijular poem on \\\q]^^^ fairy of the river Lb, written by 

Tgnnu-shih we read: "'After having visited the 



27 

capital, on returning I crossed the river t^-Lo : the ancients 
have call^^d the jf,^ fairi/ of this river J^ $£ Lady Meih ; 
and I, havinor been nioved by the answer which ^ 32 
Siing-ynh gave to 7^3E the King of Tsob, regarding this 
female sprite, wrote this preface." 

In an irregular poem written by |^ ^i;| ^ Seay-lhiL^^-yiin, 
on the JH^fi nymph of the Yang-isze-keang, we read : '■ ^Q 
^ The invited ghosts settled their feelings, and the "^^ ^\^ 
fairy of the L6 river purified her thoughts, while they car- 
ried to the utmost the extensive arrangements of former days, 
and exhausted the elegant fiatterings of ancient times, (in or- 
der (o propitiate these spritps") 

Jn the ode of ^ ^ ^ Mrine-haou-jen. we read tlin« : 
*' Her sincfing made us imagine that she was among the dis- 
ci j)les of i[J Ching (a famous singer) while her form was 
comparable to thai of the ^\^ fairi/ of the ^ river /^6." 

The ode of ^ ^ "^ Chln-kea-yeii, has the following 
couplet : " Willi united hands they espied the submagistrato 
yg Pwan, and with divid-d heads they contemj)lated the jfilp 
fairy of tlie }§• river /v6," 

The ode of ;j^^^ ^^ Keuen-tih.yu contains the follow- 
ing : " As the clouds and rain of the 35 ^^'00 hill remind 
one of the jfl^ fairy of the river J^ L6, so her pearly buttons 
and perfumed waist exactly suited her beautiful form." 

The ode of ;y^ ^ Too-muh also says : " Who is so beau- 
tiful as the ^ fairy of the '/§ L6 river, resemblmg a young 
person of fourteen or fifteen." 

46. !f^ ifi^ To set forth the spirit. In an irregular poem on 
the guitar, we read, '' ^ Kwei and ^ Seang J^ J^ exhi- 
bited the met/iods of their arts, whilst fix, Pwan and f^ 
Chuy .!|^ j|i$ set forth the spirit of their iiiventions." 

47. S|^ {[(^ To terrify one's spirit. The same ode §ays, 
" In changing the tune he used diverse keys, and yet phiy«^d 
them in unison ; so that he moved all the hearcra, and ^^ 
1^ electrified thrir spirits.'^ 



28 

48. ^ 1$ The honourable spirits. ^] ^ j^ Le#. 
heaou-e, whilst penning an ode to correspond with that on the 
temple of ^ ^ fjjH Han-kaou-tsob, said, " Gems and pre* 
sents are ititended to honour B^ f-Q ^^® illustrious objects of 
sacrifice, while victims and libations are used for complin 
men ting 1^ jjjtp the honourable spirifs.^^ 

49. ^ 1$ Licentious sprites. The ode of ^ B^ 
Chin-seuen has the following: ''At^^ Chin-se they 
sang ^ iffi wanton songs, and at £^ J|| Lin-tsze they 
honoured ^ flfl licentious sprites.'^'' 

' 50. >5S :|t f^ The fairy of Koo-shay. ^^Chwang*. 
tsze says, '' At the contemptible little hill of ^i^^ Koo« 
shay, there dwells a flp A. fairy, whose flesh is like thd 
flakes of driven snow, and who is secluded from observation, 
like a youn? virgin." 

51. JS fjL f^ Wine confuses the spirit. ^ ^ Seun- 
tsze says. " The drunken man attempts to step over a ditch 
a hundred paces broad, thinking it only a puddle of a fool 
wide ; he also stoops when entering a city gate, as if h© 
w^re oroinnr through the small door of the harem ; for ^ 
^L -^ W '^inne has confused his spirit.''^ 

SI S / Ijew-hwa-tsze has said, '' Do not allow the 
influence of joy c sorrow to ^^ ^1^ disturb your spirits.'''^ 

5'2. ^ S lll^ The spirit of the open terrace. <'Why 
disturb yourself about a little shower of rain ? call hither ^ 
J ]l^ the spirit of the open terraced 

53. l?r 4^ 1$ The spirit of a hundred ajres. In the 
ode of ^ ^ Soo-king, we read ; " The chirping of the 
swallow indicates, that the three kinds of cultivation are 
succepsftil ; and the coiling of the dragon shews, that he is 
W 4^ W ^^'^ '^virit of a hundred ages.^^ 

'' '. jfL fl^ The nine days' spirit. In the ode of ^ 
^ Kob-che, we read : " Fate brings us sometimes lo the 
sage of a thousand years, (i. e. prosperity) ; and time con- 



29 

ducts us occasionally, to the ^ Q f ^ 7iine days' spirit, 
i e. poverty." 

55. ^ ifi^ Extremely mysterious. Under this head, we 
have an extract from the -^ ^ Book of Diagrams, as fol- 
lows : *' The scheme of the D'agrams is without thought, 
and without action, it is silent and motionless ; but when 
put in operation, it reveals all matter-? under heaven : what 
but the ^ f\ip most mysterious thing in all the world, 
could have been equal to this." See Theology of the Chinese, 
pafije 129. 

56. ^ ill? To carry to the utmost the marvellous. Ano- 
ther extract from the ^ ^ Book of Diagrams, is as fol- 
lows : " Coniucius said, Books cannot contain all that 
men would say, and words cannot convey the whole of one^s 
meaning. If so, are we to conclude, that the intentions of 
the sage cannot be discerned ? No : for the sage has set up 
the forms of the pr(;gnostications, to ronvpiy fully his views ; 
and established the diagframs, to shew fully the difference 
between the true and the false ; he has likewise annexed the 
explanations, in order to express his full meaning. He has 
made changes and indications (in the diagrams,) in order to 
shew the full extent of its advantages ; while he encourasjes 
and urges on those who work the scheme, in order to § jj* 
carry to the utmost its marvellousness.'^ See Theology of 
the Chinese, page 136. 

57. ^ w To understand thoroughly that which is mys- 
terious. Again, the ^ ^ Book of Diagrams is quoted, as 
follows : " Going on from tliis (lower attainment) the stu- 
died advances, until he attains a point which surpasses com- 
mon apf^rchension ; he ^ |i|| comprehends thoroughly the 
mysterious, and knows fully the transformations of nature ; 
thus reaching the fulness of virtue." See Theology of the 
Chinese, page 139. In paraphrasing this passage, one com- 
mentator says, " Passing on between these two, the student 
attains to the ^ ^jj? abstruse and wonderful, not to be com- 



30 ^ 

prehpnded by common minds, while he thoroughly exhausts 
the ^ ^" ^ ^^ wonderfully marvellous, and perfectly 
knows the ever-chans^inff doctrine.'' 

58. liS f^ To assist spiritual beings. Another quota- 
tion from (he Book of Diagrams. " The (diagrams) bring to 
the knowledge of men the right course of things, and bring 
human actions into contact with )|iP invisible beings ; in 
this way (the diagram?) mn.y be useful in the intercourse of 
men, as well as of ffp^ ^ some assistance to invisible be- 
ings^ See Theology of the Chinese, page 125. 

59. HI 1^ Round and mysterious. The % ^ Book 
of Diagrams is again referred to, as follows : " Thus it is 
that the character of the divining straw is Uj fjf^ Iff round 
and inscrutable ; and tlie character of the eight diagrams is 
square and within comprehension." See Theology of the 
Chinese, page 131. A commentator says, that '* round and 
inscrutable," refers to the changes of the straws, which are 
interminable ; while "square and within comprehension," re- 
fers to the settled principles of things. 

We have then a quotation from the song of ]^ ^ Yu- 
Bin, in allusion to the Hea dynasty, as follows : '^ Ceremo- 
nies should be fixed like the decree of Heaven, and wisdom 



adapt itself to circumstances, as the IgJ jj[^ revolving and 
mysterious (changes of nature)." 

60. ^ i[|^ Sagelike and inscrutably intellisrent. Under 
this head, we have a quotation from the ^ ^ Historical 
Classic, as follows : " The virtues of the divine ruler (Yaou) 
were extensive and all-pervading, h^ w^^^^ sagelike and 
f^ inscrutably intelligent, both |0J dignified and 3t accom- 
plished." See Theology of the Chinese, p.p. 6, 46. 

Then follows a quotation from a memorial, drawn up by 
^ B^ L6-ke, who said, <' When the middle kingdom be- 
comes intelligent and prosperous, and when its fate is to 
have ^ sagelike and ^|^ insc7^utably intelligent princes, 
then di^atant nations will hasten to her consts, and cherish 



31 

towards her the respectful feelings of servants and children." 

61. ^ f|$ The host of spirits. Here we have another 
quotation from the ^ ^ Historical Classic, as follows : 
" Shun looked in his worsiiip towards the hills and rivers, 
universally including ^fl^ the host ofspiriis." See Theo- 
logy of the Cliiiiese, p. 44. Also Inquiry, p. 46. and Morrison's 
Dictioudry, Part 1. Vol. 1. p. 804. 

From the ]^(^ Tsb-chuen, we have the following quo- 
tation : " The form of the imprecation is addressed to the 
famous hills and celebrated rivers,^ f|^ to the host ^of 
spirits^ and the ^ j]j[^ multitude of objects sacrificed to." 

In an irregular po<ini on the y ^ palace of the sweet loun- 
tain, we read, '• Sehjct the head necromancers to call at 
heaven's portals, and opening the court of heaven invite the 
^S ffp host of spirits. ^^ 

In an irrcjxular poem by jjj fSl Chang-hang we read, "whilst 
felicitating ^ fl|/ the host oj s'pirits who hold the wands of 
ofRce, he was displeased with the faithlessness of the 
Pv Ml Fan^r-fung country." 

62. 0^ fl^ Intelligent spirits. Here we have a quotation 
from the ^^f ^ Book of Odes, as follows : " Whilst we respect 
and venerate B^ fffi intelligent spirits, we ought to escape 
the wrath of Heaven. " See Theology of the Chinese, p. 65. 

Then follows a quotation from the j^j fj^ Book of Ceremo- 
nies of the Chow^ dynasty, under the ^'^ autumnal officer, 
which runs thus : '' The officer in cl targe of covenants attend- 
ed to the manner in which these covenants were drawn up, 
and the ceremonies attending th-^^m, when he faced the north, 
and announced the same to the h)^ flfl intelligent spirits.'^ 
The commentator tells us that the intelligent spirits here re- 
fer to those which preside over the sun and moon, hills and 
rivers. 

After this we have a quotation from the >Qc^ Tsb-chuen. 
*'When a country i^ about to prospr B^ fl|? intelligent 
spirits descend ami insp'ct its virtue." 



32 

^ Wi Pan-koo, speaking in admiration of the emperor's 
^ 5^ eastern tour of inspection, sajs, " 0^ ||^ intelligent 
spirits frequently respond to their votaries, and felicitous 
verifications are sent down." 

In the ode of j^ j^ Yang-kang we read, "Purity and 
sincerity move heaven and earth, fidelity and rectitude influ, 
ence ^ |^ intelligent spirits y 

In an ode on the sacrifices offered to the lady ^^ ({^ 
Hwang-po, composed by ^ij f^ Lew-shang, occurs the fol- 
lowing: " Thtt clouds and rain upon the blue hills are in 
accordance with the arrangements of h^ ^^^ intelligent 
spirits-^' 

63. >^fl^Torely on, or to afford reliance to spirits. 
Iii the ^ g2k ^^^^ ^* Ceremonies we read, that " they 
spread the mats and put the tables uniformly, to afford some- 
thing '^ ^^ for the spirits to lean uponJ' 

In a book on geography, published in ih-^ ^ Tsfn dynasty, 
we have the followii»g passage: "When f^ j^ Kaou-yang 
was on earth, he ^ ^^ relied on the spirits, while *f^ ^ 
Te-kiih complied with Heaven and practiced righteousness.') 

64. •f'fj 1^ Transformations myterious. Under this 
head, the writer in the ^ f(i Book of Ceremoiiijs, speaking 
of music, says, "When feeling is deep, the elegant expres- 
sion of it will be clear ; as when the spiritual energies of 
nature are full, then f{j f ||| its tra7isformations are mysteri- 
ous.''^ The commentator says, that f|^ Shin here means 
mysterious and incomprehensible. See Theology of the 
Chinese, p. 92. 

In the writings of 5^ ^ Pan-koo, found in the ^^ W 
books of the later Han dynasty, we have the following ; 
** The great ^ 7narvel\^ is the transformation of nature, 
in which we continually observe complete perfection." 

65. ^ 1$ To lead forth the spirits. In the |g |fi Book 
of Ceremonies we read, " Music is intended for the promotion 
of harmony, thus (when played up)^ j|p it leads forth the 



33 

spirits and in this respect follows the pattern of Heaven." 
SiiC Tlh;olo'4y of the Chines, p. 9i). 

66.^ \\^ To keep llie spirits in the inner apartment. Ano- 
ther qnotaiion from the |^ j^[^ Book of Cereinonie.s is as 
follows: ^' Wiien the villagers were exoicisini; demons, Con- 
fuciiH put on his court-dre»s, and stood on the steps (of the 
ancesioiial temple ) that he micrht ^ fVfj retain the spirits 
in the inner apartment (of the building.)' See Theology of 
th« Chinese, pa^e 88. Inquiry, page 106. 

67. ^i fl^ The spirit of the i;round. In the |^ gj^ l^ 
Exi)!anutions of the Book of Ceremonies, we read, liiut f^ 
Sew, the ^Oi\ of it IE. Kiing-Uung lovfd to wander .•il)road, 
but wherever he set nis foot, he invariably inspected ihiu-is 
Diost accurately; hence the people pacrificed to him. as ^J; |lp 
the spirit of the ground.^^ 

In the odes of *^ l^t Hau-yu, we read, "The blade of 
wheal contains the ear, and iho niulb ;rry-tree produces its 
fruit, but both of them depend on the soil, and rejoice in the 

fit 'fl^ -^V^^"^''"^ f4 i!^e ground:' 

67. ^ f||^ To feast the spirits. In tlie Explanations of the 
Ml fM Ceremonies of the Chow dynasty, we read, t..ac 
'• When mention is made of sot»^'s, posturc-makiug, and vic- 
tims, the meaning is, that on the prn.ce bringin|j; in the victim, 
the songs and posture-maUing commence ; intimating that the 
sacrifices are fat and fragrant, iii order to ^ ifllfl faast the 
spirits :' 

68. -j^ |l|l The great spirits. In the }^ |t§ Boole of Cere- 
monies of the Cliow dynasty, it is said, that '-(VVhen kings go 
out to war) a sacrifice corresponding to tlie celestial one 
should be presented, an earthen altar shoiild be built to the 
>^C fl^ great spirits^ while the military weapons should be 
sacrificed to at the great hills and rivers." The Commenta- 
tor, also quoted in the Thesaurus, says, that " the great spirits 
here refer to the spirits of the earth and of the adjacent 
n>ountftin*<. " 



34 

A ^ form of imprecation, employed against the ^ Tsob 
country, contains tlw^ lollowing : ''Let the public offerer 
of prayer, named §[] ^ Slia'^u-tung, spread forili liis sup- 
plications, and aniioimce tlieni to the ilhistrious and ^ ||l^ 
great spirit ^Si-^^*'^-" 

69. ^ ^ '1 o provide for the spirits. In the ]^ f^ 
Tsb-chuen we read, that " The ^ magistrate of ^ Yu, 
named J& ^^ Woo-yu, said, As cotmecfed wnh heaven 
there are ten days, (i. e. ten days designated by the ten 
horary characters called celestial stems,) so among men there 
are ten ranks, the inferior among wliom serve the suj)erior, 
while the pnpsrior ^ f^ provide for the spirks.^^ 

70. ifiS fjj? To sacrifice to the spirits. Among the )f^ 
g§ Sayings of tlie Chow country, is the follovvinir : '< The 
private hisiorian ^ K\v6 said. When men do not. jjg.yacn- 
^ceto the %^ spirits, and yet seek for happiness, the spiriis will 

certninly send down calamity upon them. To present offer- 
ings with a pnre intention is what is mi^ant by jjj^ sacrifice." 

71. ^ 'tl$ To set forth the spirit. Among ilie same 1^ 
g§ Sayings of the Chow country, is the following: " ]^ 
Chow, the son of ^ ^^ Sun-tan, of ih • ^ Tsi'n country, 
in l^ jjji^ setting forth the spirit, was enabled to display 
liis filial piety." 

72. ^ %^ To adjust the spirit. In the same work there is 
a saying of f^ j\\ ff.^ Ling-cijow-kew, to the following ef- 
fect : " Music commeni-ini with the note called 55 'J3B i^^'^-s'^ 
h played up, when we have to purify ihe hundnd objects, "^ 
f}!}! to ar/just the spirits, and to entertain guests." 

73. >B| |1^ To rely on spirits. In the sam'^ work a writer 
says, that '• Our j^^Ke clan, spran<r_fiom MM'''^ imperial 
sraiid-mother, who dwelt in the 5c 'H celestial tortoise (one 
if the lunar mansions) ; she was the niece of ]7^ ^^ T hae- 
Leanir, and the descendant of f|^ {^ Pih-ling, the Jj^ spirit 
on whom ^ ^ Pung-kung y^ relied.'' 

74. ^ fp All the spirits. In the ^ |g Sayings of the 



35 

TsS country, is tlie following direclion : ' In conjunction with 
the prifKtes of the eiTi|»ire let them adora the victims and 
draw iij) the form of the covenant, in order to imi)recate 1^ 
{[j^ all the spirits above and below." 

75. ^ ijl^ Like tl»ej=|.irit3. In the ^ f^JIisforical Re- 
cords rcs(x:cnng J^ 'ij^ VVob-i.r, one ^ jj^ ^ Wan-cliin^r. 
yen advised the emperor, saying. " If your Maj'-sty wishes 
to maintairi a communication with ]jj!p ppiritnal bein«rs, and 
your palaces and robes are not ^ jjjl|j like those of the 
spirits. lh<- jji^ i}^ spiritual beings will not approach you." 

In ihe^xl Astronomical Works of the*^ Tsfn country, 
one ijg [^^\ Chansj-hang said. * All the stars are disposed in 
order, each one having something to which it b'?longs : those 
that are ov-r the desert resemble wild anirn tls, those that 
are over the court resemble the officers, and those that are 
over ni'in in ireneral ^ ^^ resemble the spirits.''^ 

7'6. ^ lip 'Vo keep tojzether the spiri's. In the ^ "§ 
annals of ^ ^ history, we rtad. that ' ^ Jl^ Chnen-heuh 
ordered the corrector of the south nam •«! ^^ Cluing to attend 
to the business of heaven, in order to ^ [[[I^ keep together 
the spirits ; whilst he comnianded the corrector of the north 
named ^ Le to attend to the business of earth, in t^rdcr to 
^ K keep the people in their proper places : causing them 
to revert to the old regulations, and not to intrude fnmiliarly 
into forbidden thing*." The commentaior says, that ^ 
shuh means ^ to keep together, or to collect under the pro- 
per head. 

77. ^/jiij^ Good spiru. In the ^ |2 Historical Re- 
Cord of the times of ^i^ S Ts;n che-hwang. we read, 
that "?P^ Che-hwangonce dreamed that he had a battle 
with J^ jl^ the Spirit of the sea. Whereupon he enquired 
of the interpreter of dreams, who said, you musj banish 
away this ^ |^ evil spirit, and then the ^ f^ good 
spirit may be induced to come " 

In the account of ^ ^ ^ Wang-gnan-shTh. met with 



:^6 

in ilie r?)^ ^^ WE History of the Sung dynasty, we read, 
that "^ ^ ^ flp Leu-liwuy-k'liinfT fame to pay his obi'i- 
Fanceat the emperor's gate, wh^n ^ ^ Gnan-shih peti- 
tiotied, that thi^^ imn might he admitt- d to talce a part 
in fl)e govtM'nment of the ^on'tfrv : he al^o prayed, that ihe 
e?nper()r wnnld summon ^ f^ Han-keanir. lo oflicinte in 
the «=tead of hinif?elf. (as prime minister). Th.^^^se two men 
stric'Iy adh'Mvd to the pattern which he hnd ^^^-t th-^m, with- 
out tjie slightest fnihir^ : so that the mm of that dny called 
j^^ K'eancr. thf> '7^^^' P^ the priest that Isar^d-d down, the 
FVst.pm, and ^C 10 Hwiiy-k'hinT the ^ jjj^ e-ood spirit 
that proterted t!ie scheme of government, established by 
Gnan-shTh." 

78. f[^ pl^ To look out for apparitions. In the ^| ^^ 
itf' lioo'- no theappoinimpnt aitd transfer of ofilces met with in 
Ihe ^JN 1^ Historirnl Records, we rend, fhat '^ ^ ^ ^|p 
jTijt^rr.QfiMjj'jiing^-fc^tTJH^ f/yas" lo^klnrr oi:t for a:'^pa/^i'^''"s at 
W ^ Hd-HTO. wh'^n he saw the foot-marks of a f (Ij \ 
frirv, nam-d ||f J^ How-^lie, on the city wn]]." 

The some wnr'c also savs. tltat soip*^ /j x; monntehanks 
l)nvin<r nss^riod that *' in the tit>i^ of ei '^ Hwj"nc^-te fi^e 
rit'f^s nnd twelve galleries were hnilt. in order to |}^ JIj* Jy 
look on* for apparifiovs. at certain seasons of the year; 
the decree was issued to the following effect : The 
emperor has given permission, that in the coming year, these 
shonld he ron^Jtrncted accordincr to the pattern " 

^^' M. ^^ Vapoury spectres. In the ^ JJ^ ^ book on 
the appointment and transfer of offices, met with among- the 
Fi.^torical Records, there is a story abont one ^T Q 
^ Sin-hwan-nionr who. looking up into the air, tfiouoht 
that he saw ^ ^^ ^ some spectres and vapours (here, like 
men with silk caps on : npon which the etnperor, helipving 
Ins words, ordered several temples to be built, and ^p Ping 
to be richly rewarded. He then thounrht, he saw -^ >jx^, 
a golden vapour in another place, and was about to involve 



37 

the court in more expense, whei^ '^ some persons sent up a 
memorial, sfadnu, thnt what ^jbfj.^ Sin-hwan-p?ng^ falk- 
ed about ^{^ [(^ vapoury spec/res, was altoci^ether false ;" 
whereupon jhe emperor gave him over to the officers of jus- 
tice, and caused him to he pn? lo d nth 

In a work entitled j^ jj^ ^ jtr y^ Hwang-keTh-king- 
she-s)]00, we m^et with the fo'.lowiuG: sentence : '^ With 
regard to theennh, we may consider, that i»s W substance 
consfitutes iis ^ grosser element, and its ^^ vapour forms 
it3 %^ smri/:' 

SO. ^ fj-j-! To n^ceive the spirits. In tiip ?|^ ^t ^ 
A<-count of Ceremony and Mu^ic. found in the ^^ ^ Books 
of Hon, we read " Wlien (the emperor), in his heantifnlly- 
embroidered robes spread all around liim, f^ if|l|f goes to 
receive the spiri's. tli"v come.'*' 

In a work called ^ ^ -[^ ^ YunJ<eih-tcRTh-f?ertn, we 
read: "You slio--' ' immcdi.iL.ly ro to "^ fj^ receive 
tJtP ffpiriis, and to g^f ^ arouse the wind, that in obedience 
to the (low of wniers, ih^y may spread abroad the wav^s." 

SI- ^M. W T^'^e »"«f'''-^ ''pi'-'^- i'« t'"^ sit ^1 — ^'^- 

cord of (Vremonies and Music, ru'^t wiih in the ^^ ^ 
Books of Ilan, we read : " 0)»ly the ^ "ji^ Great OriLn'nal 
is especially honoured, while the ^ij| ffjjp v.wflier spirit yields 
us abundance of happine-ss." The conmieniator on this 
passage says. '• The great orij[inal is Heaven, atid the mother 
spirit r.fers to earth ; the passage implies, that the spirit 
of heaven is especially to he honoured, while the spirit of 
earth viehl.s us abimdance of deli^^bt." 

|fi] -^ 3^ T.e.v-yn-seif» in his prefiice to an irregular poem 
written on J^ 7^ Te-shTh. says : ''■ The XM f^-^ mother 
ttpirit sends forth dampness." 

S2. u^]^ ^^ Overawed in spirit. In the same f§; ^| '^ 
Record of C^,remoiues and Music, we read : That " the lis- 
teners withou» exception felt as if ^ Qjd^^nrived of their self- 
posseseion. and ]}y^l fl^ ortrav'pj) in spirit : fhey were other- 



38 

wise delisfhied and received that which flowed towards them." 

S3. 5^ 1^ To have if»terconrse with spirits. In the ^jj 
?Ii \^ Record of fhe sacrifices offered at the wititer solstice, 
found in the ^^ ^ Uoo:<3 of Han. we read, that '' Wlien the 
Book of Odes sp-aics about * follovvinir out the old regulations,' 
it meaiss by ' old regulations' tlie institutions of the former 
kin^s: ^ 3E Wan- wan i^ made use of th^se 3c w ^^ ^^^^^ 
iiitercourse with the spirits in sacrifice, and thus his s«)n8 and 
grandsons, became ninrif^rous in the extreme." 

In the works of 3^ -^^ ^1^ Wet-shabu-ung, we meet with 
the following observation; "Those who discuss'-d the sub- 
ject further considered, that the ode referring ' ^ J|| to the 
piH'ity of the ancestorial temple,' implied that the ceremonies 
observed in ;^ JCT holding intercourse with the spirits 
ought invariably to be pure and peaceful." 

The work of^ I^ Chung-kpun. says, that " the essen- 
tial part of sacrifice consists in ^C TIt folding- intercourse 
with the spirits, and that the excellence of music consists in 
its ^ 0|p satisfying intflliofent beings." 

In th^' ^ song of ^ iji$ the five spirits, we meet with 
the followiasf direction, "^ hold intercourse ivith |^ ^^^ 
spirits, as if you were entertaining them." 

84. ^ ifiji The sprite of the Tsm country. In the works of 
:}^ J^ Yang-heung, met with in the '/^ ^ Books of Han, 
occurs the following: "^ fl^ The s|»rite of the Tsin 
country bein^ afraid, trampled on his own soul, and skulked 
under the banks of the stream." The commentator on this 
passage says, " That in the lime of X Wan, the duke of 
^ Tsiu, there was f^ a monstrous elf about the court, which 
turning itself into a cow, fled to the southern hill, and hid 
amono- the trees of the wood : when the trees were cut down, 
it changed its shape airain, and entered the ;g Fung water^ 
The duke ^ Wan abominated it, and made an image of it in 
order to bring it under subjection. This is what the people 
of the present day mean by = the horned one :' which is called 



39 



^^'« ^ W sprite of the Tsin country. It means that this 
'f^ sprite became friiiuencd, and dived inio the water, where 
it irod on its own ^g soul, and skulKed with its back ao^ainst 
the sideof tlie |>ool. om account of its excessive lerror." 

85.^0 )]|ljl To harmonize one's spirits. In thtt works of ft 
^ ^ Keu-tseen-isi.w, met with in tl»e '^ § Books of ihe 
Han dynasty, occurs llie following; " By attentively lisien- 
ini< to the sounds of music, we ^ ]^ foster our vigour of 
mind, and ^]\ ^-If karmoiiize our spirits.''^ 

The song of the hidy ^ Wang of the empyreal palncc, 
contains the following expression : * The pearly pipe 5pJ 
soothes f^ my spirits, while the golden wine-cup dissipates 
my sorrows.*' 

In an irregular poem on a chrysanthemum growingr 
in the court, wrin-n by ^ jfl Yang-keung. we have the 
following : ''To j^ 1^: fosicr onesj disposition and ^ f|^ 
soothe one's spirits^ is ihe way lo promote final felicity." 

S6. ^ Tl$ '^'''*^ '^^''■y of ^^^^^ water. In the account of ihe 
f^ ^ southern baibarians, met with in the yj ^ Books 
of Hau, is the following statement : - In ihe £g ;7]C salt wa- 
ter there is a _^ f 1^ fairy lady, who addressed ^ ^ Prince 
Xiin, sayinp, 'Tiiis territory of yours is wide and extensive, 
producing both fish and salt, I wish to remain and dwell with 
you.' The prince Lin refused ; when the 3^ li^/^^^i/ l(^dy 
came unexpectedly one evening and took up her abode with 
him. In the morninij she transformed herself into an insect^ 
and with the rest of the insects dew about in such swarms as 
to obscure the light of the sun, so tliat the sky and the ground 
were'boih darkened : this coniinning for more than ten days, 
Prince Lin wait«td for his oj)porLuniiy, and shot her dead 
with an arrow ; after which the sicy became clear." 

87. ^ ifj^ To compose the spirit. In the writings of ^tp 
^ j^ Chiing-chang-t'hung, met with in the '^ ^ Books of 
IJan, we read a^ follows : " ^ |]|^ Composing your spirit 
in the inner apartmenis you may aspire to the mysterious 



40 

emptiness spoken of by the Taouists ; also Wj fj^ managing 
your breath in pure placidity, you may aim atsome coiiformi* 
ty to their most eminent doctors.'^ 

88. "^1$ The united spirits. In an astronomical work, 
5^ J>C ^ ^"^' '^^"'^ among the ;^ ^ Bookd of Uan, we 
read ihat, ' ^ ^ The three im;)3iial ones excelled in their 
transfoi'maiions, while ihe jjjf]^ jf^^ united spii^its were pure in 
their simplicity." 

g9 I5B. ^^ To felicitate one's spirit. In the account of 
W- W^ Leanf^-ke, metwiili in the 7^ ^ Books of Han. it 
is said, that "One ^ ^ Yuen-cho ) sent up a memorial to 
him saying. '• You il)e great general, should imitate tlie prac- 
tice of those who store up their carriages ; you should recline 
on ahi'zh pillow and ^^^\^ ^dirAlaU your spirit P 

90. ^ !($ To be sparifig of one's spirits. In the account 
of I'll ^ Chow-pwan met wiih in the :^ ^ Books of Han, 
we road tliat " jttj Cliow" was able to requite his parents, t^ 
f!p/ie was sparing of his animal spirits, and tlius promoted 
his happineris." Tl»e commentator says, that sparing 
means to be careful of indulging too great a flow of animal 
spirits. 

91. ^ J^ The demon of the arrow. In the account ot'3^% 
^^ Kla»!g-kung, contained in tiie |'^ \^^ ^' Doo';s of ilie lat- 
er Han dynasty, we meet with tiie following statement : 
" The northern jjP ^ Shen-yu, (Tartars) attacked the city of 
^ J^ Kin-pob, when ^ Kung ascended the citadel to 
defend it; in doing which he took some poison, and rubbed 
it on liis arrows, spreading the report, that the ]^ ^ Ciiinese 
had )g1j ^1^ demons in their arrows, and that all who might 
be wounded thereby, would meet wit!) some unforeseen cala- 
mity. He then sliot them off from a strong bow, and those 
of the enemy who were struck by the arrows, on looking 
at their wounds, perceived a bubbling of the blood ; this 
induced great alarm, and led them to say to each other "/^ 
S^ fi^ thf. weapons of the Chinese haw. d enionji in ttiem ; 



41 

and they are much to be dreaded.' Whereupon the Tartars 
raised the siege." 

la the ode of ^ ^ ^ Hwang-ting-keen, occurs the 
following: '-When the Chitiese took the city of ibjjc »UJ 
T'haou-chow, Mieir 'pf ^ fl^ arrows had soiiietfiiiig 
marvellous in tliem." 

92 *Jj^ flp To penetrate into the spiritual. In the works of 
^ Luh-yun, contained in the books of the "b* Tsin 



JH-^ -jij^ j-iuii-jruu, cuuiaiucu iii lue uuui\.s ui iiie Q 

co'iiury, we read, "Fathom the abstruse, collect the scattered, 
^ j(i» reflect on the mental, and }J^ f||l penetrate into 
the spiritual^ 

]n the ^ ^ 1^ Record of the three Imperial Ones, found 
in the J^ ^ Luo-she history, occurs the following: •' ^ 
^P The ircaiise on spiritual things, and the work on the 
/\ % ei;^ht conjunctions, ceriainly Jig] ^^ penetrate into 
i/ie spiritual. ^^ 

'T^^^^yS secret explanations of the fg ^ Perfect 
Classic say, " That the ^ ^ three originals, and the 
^ ''^ eight conjunctions, t»aiurally led to the perfection of 
writing, and were first discovered by observing the foot-prints 
of birds. The ^ f^ True Injunction says, that the 
J^ W ^'S''^ conjunctions are tiie origin of writing. Tlie 
^fe J|fl] IS CJreat Penetration Classic says, The arrange- 
ment of the ^ ^ Three Imperial Ones, (the trinity of the 
Taouists) is as follows : ^ ^ I'lie Perfect Pure One \^ j|L 
penetrates into the abstracted, the _f^ S Superior Pnre 
One ^)»] ^ penetrates into the mysterious, and the ^ fS 
Infinite Pure One :J||^ jjjlp penetrates into the spiritual See 
Morrison's Dictionary, Parti. Vol. I. p. 15. 

93. ^ 'Hli To promote one's spirituality. In the ac- 
count of ^ J^ Tsaou-pe, met with in the ^ ^ books of 
Tsfn, we read as follows: " ^ ^V Yu-kung dwelt alone, 
on a lofty precipice, in order to ^ ^\^ promote his spiritual 
litij ; while ^ i^ Leang-sang went away to the soutliern 
regions, in order to j^ 1^ maintain his abtiractedness." 

E 



42 

Also in the writings of f^ )^ Foo-heen, we rend, " Ii is 
said iliat yon ought Ly sileui nieUiiation ^ jfj^ to promote 
your spiricualit'i/, nnd wUcncvtit yon nuet with an}*^ great 
jrain or loss, you slionld lay fast iiold on ihis principle.'' 

In the ,'icciMifH of ^ J^ Tsny-ha.'n, found in the ^ ^ 
books ofWef. y§^ Ha,)U addicsi^ing the enij)eror said, 'Your 
Majt'pty should saunter about, witl<out auyihing to do, and 
thus fj^ flp nourish your animal spirits^ and promote your 
longcviiy.'' 

91. f|$ fi^ The excellent 3j>irit. In f he ||| ?^ llerord of 
Music, fo«»nd in the ^ ^^ ^ books of the iNaii-tse dynas- 
ty, we meet with Uie foUowiui^ : '' IntelUj^ently venerate the 
^ ffl imj)eria[ ancestor, and respectfully invite {/jj ifl^ tlie 
excellent spirit.'^ 

95. ^J}|i|3 The sylvan elf. In the accotmt of the gQ 
^j^ western regions, fouud in ^[^ J[^ the nortl»«*rn historians, 
we have the followini; strange recital : •' Tl^e '^ |^ country 
of the Amazons lies to the south tjf the ^^ ^^ Tsun^j moun- 
tain, where the t)eople conmionly serve a jjlfp spiritual being, 
call.-d p3) fl^ in O-sew^lo ; there is also a ^ iFjlj^ sylvan elf. to 
V'hosn a; tlie lje.:innin«4 of the year they off r a human being 
in sacrifice ; for which, however, a monkey is sonietnnes sub- 
stituted : whea the sacrifice is over, the offerer jroes amouiist 
the hills and prays ; a bird like a male pheasant then con»es, 
and perches ot» the palm of his hand ; if on cuiiini^ open the 
stomach of this bird, they find it full of corn, they predict a 
favourable year; btJt if of ^M'avel, then calamities are looked 
for. This is called Jivininnr hv means of !)irils." 

In the work entitled ^ jjj^ =^ a general Inquiry into all- 
the spirits, we read, that, 'In liie district of ^ ^\iuu^' 
shoo, in the prefecture ofj/^^TLeu-Uvang, there lived a widow 
woinan, named ^ ^, ^- Le-heen-chay, who getting up one 
night in her l^ouse, taw a fenuile clothed in embroidered gar- 
ments, calling herself _^jjj|| the imperial grandmother ^ 



43 

0li ^he. fairt/ of (he woodSi who was able Co get up clouds 
and rain." 

In an od« in praise of (lie 'Jq* ^^ bamboo mouse, composed 
^y 3E Pj Wan^-yii. we have the following ronplef : *• In 
repaid to rank it ailacbf^s irs-jf to Jbe altar of (he \f\ ;f|$ 
sylvan fainj, i\nd in respect to iucomc it steals the rice of the 
great grannrv." 

^^y ^i^ iW T''*'^ ''C'lrt and mind. In an account of (he 
f? ^ Budlhist and Taonist reli-ions, found in the f^ '^ 
b<»osd of Wr\, if is said. *• That their religion consir^t:? in 
Sf^tJiniij aj=i(lt- Jj"(i^^ di-orderly thonuhts, and in thoroughly 
clcasinrr i^ ^fl f/te heart and luind" 

I" fM i^ >U** '^ Record of alrange and singular thin2:s. we 
fad that, ''3^/^ L-.-kwaui. ih«^ imperial historian of thei|^ 
^nonht-rn T.-e ilyi>asfy. was niost intensely addicted to read- 
ing : oneni^ht he dreamed that a man cam.^ to iiim, savin''. 
* I am yotir i^ [pip /leart and mind, you have oppressed me 
by excessive labour ; I llKrefore now take my leave of you;' 
after flu's 1^ Kwang berame suddenly ill aid dii.d." 

97. Vjp ftji To exhnust the ppirit. In the account of '/^ 
^]^ Wan-yen-po, met with ir) the ^ ^ books of 
T'liang, we read, *' That after ^ f§ Ycn-po was dead, his 
imperial mtafiter sighed, P<iyin<?, ' Yen-po, on account of bis 
anxi^*ty for the country. ^ ;^ has expended his thoughts 
and 5^ fjjl exhausted his spirits ; I am sorry that I did 
not allow liim a little leisure, that he might promote bia 
lonijeviiy.' " 

98. ^ ifi$ To do obeisance to the spirits. In the ^ ^ 



Account of sacred music, mel with in the ^j;; §^ History of 
the Sling dynasty, we have the following statement : *' The 
carpelted table is intended^ 'j^ to pay court to the gods, 
and the ^ '^^ bnmboo bouses are meant ^ f|$ to do obei- 
sance to the spirits^ 

The bamboo houses here mentioned allude to the little imi- 
tation houses, made of bamboo and paj)er, which the Chinese 



44 

burn, when they worsliip tlie manes of their ancestors." 

In the odeof^-^Lft'ho, we have the following line; "^ 
fl^ By doing obeisance to the spirits, we obtain the grant of 
longevity which we offer up (o the emperor." 

99. I^fl:^ To inquire into the spirits. In an account 
of ® ;^ aits and literature, met with in tbe ^ ^ His- 
tory of the Siincr dynasty, we read, thnt " f 4^ M* Tseu- 

ahfe "'vfi -i!3L 
heuen composed a treatise, entitled ^ ijlip ^ an inquirij 

into the spirits!''^ 

100. fU |l^ The spirit of the hill. In \\\ ]% ;^ ^ 
a fnhnlons account of liills and seas, we read, ilmr " ^g tU 
^ # The spirit of the Chung hill was called f;g f^ Chuh- 
yin ; when it opened its eyes to see, there was day, and 
when it closed iliem, there was nisfht; when it b!ew roughly, 
there was winter, and wlien sofily, there was summer ; 
ifs body was 1,000 le in length, and it dwelt to the east of 
$a^|^Wo6-shin." 

Again, in the same book we read, "At the 3^ [Xj Too 
hill there is a ffp spirit^ called the^ig? celestial fool, who 
dwells there ; he frequently gets up unusual storms of wind 
and rain." 

In the ^ f^ ^ Inquiry into the spirits, m^nfioned un- 
der section 99. we rend that '• In a village in J^ yi^\ Yuen- 
chf^w. there was an old man, whose disposition was respect^ 
ful and kind, and hi^; family very rich ; one day, a young 
person clothed in purple, \v\\h a j^reat retinue of servants and 
chariots, came to his house, asking for something to eat ; 
the old gentleman invited him in, and spread a table before 
him, richly provided, with sufficient for all his attendants ; 
while the old man waited upon them. The youth said, '*I 
am f^]] jjj f^ the spirit of the Yang hill ; all those who 
sacrifice to me, obtain happiness thereby. Observing that 
you were a superior man, I have come to you, asking for 
something to eat." 

In the ode of ^ j^ Le-twan, we have the following cou» 



'45 

J 
plet : " With boiled fish, you may entertain a ^fC !^ visitor 
from the wafers, and with supplies of wine you may pour out 
libations to [Jj f|]^ the spirits of the hillsJ' 

101. =^ jf|l|] Fortunate fairies. From the Uj >^ ^ fabu- 
lous account of liills and seas, we have the following: 'The 
ytt ^K "'"^^ streams uniting and flowing to the norfh, enter 
the Yellow river ; in these, there are mariy ^^ azure 
gems and fn ^^ fortunate fairies. One named ^||| T'hae- 
fung guards them." 

102. g^ Jii$ TIic drumming spirit. An extract from the 
same work is as follows : " The f|^ ^^ fairy bird of the ^ 
llj celestial hill is called rj^ yX Te-keanor; it is well-ac- 
quainted wifl» the mysteries of nuisic and dancing; one 
calls it, tl)ft ^ flffi (Jrumming spirit''' 

103. ^ ^\v^ Not to become an active spirit. In the 
writings of ^ ^ Laou-tsze, we meet with the following 
exirart: "When (a sovpreign) governs the emi^ire by rii^^ht 
principles, ^ J^ ^s jjllp the quiescent spirits j)|ip do not be- 
come actire spirits, (i. e. ghosts do not appear); it is not so 
mu<h that the quiescent spirits do not beco.-ne active spirits. 
as that fj'p the active spirits do not injme peo|)le." 

The Commf^ntator on this pa^-^-i'^^p =avs. that '' the ^ 
quiescent spirit? here mean the ^^ J'[|i ^^ ^ breath or spirit 
of heaven and earth ; and t!.a: ific jJjtjJ a-five spirits here 
mean ^ ']^ ghostlike monstrosities. He adds, that when 
the breath or spirit of man is in perfect unison with the breath 
or spirit of heaven and earth, then virtuous rulers govern the 
empire according to the right way; stillness prevails, and 
the people are not disturbed ; thus the spirit of the people 
is placid and hnrmonious, filling up all nature, and influen- 
cing all within its reach ; the breath or spirit of heaven and 
earth does not display itself in l^jE )^ unnatural appearan- 
ces, and the ^ quiescent spirits do not become ^ 'j^ 
ghostlike monsters, to bring about calamities." He continues, 
that " the j^ quiescent spirits not becomirjg ^'j'5 ghostlike 



46 

monsters, is not because they aie devoid of ^'^ ghostlike 
moa:!?(rosity: bul. aliiiouL^h th..y possess the pi>\ver lo |)roduce 
such ^|i§ 'i^ lihosf like monstrosity, tliey do not conjtire up 
calamities to injure poople. The reason why they do not 
inJMre people is, not tliat they themselves are able lo refrain, 
but b-'cause the sa^es are enabled to cau^e (lie spirit or 
breath of the people to be plncid and agreeable, not injuring 
the spirit or breath of heaveti and earth ; in this way the 
spirit or breath of fieavcn and earth also becomes placid and 
afrreeable. and does not injure m^^n." Tlie com'u Mitator 
concliidt^s by sayinsf, that *• whether we speak of y^ qui -s- 
cent spirits or t||^ active spirits, we in either case ref-r to 
5C ^ ^ 35* ^''*^ spirit or breatli of heaven and eanh. The 
namt-s are two, but one thins; is intended." From the above 
it is evident, that the words ]^ Uwt-i aiul ^\f shin have ti»e 
same j^^neral meaning, viz. that of spirits, the one quiescent 
tlie other active ; of the two kinds, however, the latter arc 
here viewed as the most to W. deprecated briut; active 
only for evil, appeal ini: in the shape of L-ho-sts. monsters, 
fairies, and elves, aiul invariably briu'^inLj duwa i:alain!liu= on 
the people : while the utmost intlneoce of the siMies is 
r<»quisiie lo keep the |j^ active spiritual monstrosities in the 
^ quiescent state 

In an ode on the iJ§ ^ western river, written by ^ ^S 
Wang-tsun, we have the following lines : " From the time 
when the intellii^ent magistrate thr- w the witches into tlie 
river, up to the present day, ^ the quiescent spirits, ^^ Jlp 
have not become active spirit s^ 

In an ode written by J*^ )^ ^ Fan-ching-ta, we read, 
" After having driven dull care away, its coming again, 
shews that the wine ]^ jjjt^ has no aciivp spirit in it." 

104. § fl|j The spirit of day. ^^ ^ Kwan-yin- 
tsze said, " e^ The sotd may be comfiared to trees ; trees 
take root in the moisture of winter, and flower during the 
warmth of summer; thus it is, thalj^ /^^^^^^ soul of man 



47 

is stored up in the ^^ quiet essence of ni^ht, and dis- 
played in I lie ^ Jjit acihe spirit of day:' 

1<>5. ^j^ ifi^ To collect liie animal spirits. The game 
writer s:i\H, " jljlp When your mind does not gallop abroad, 
you may ^^ W? collect your animal spirits together^'' 

106. i^- jjj!}l To pluck up the spirits. |^ *^ ^ Ko- 
l<\vau-»sz.: siud, •' Sclf-jovt^inmeut is the means w hereby we 
^ ^ 'X^\^vd our suhiilrt esse'ice, j^ ]jl{J pluck up our ani- 
rnul spirifs^ and jj^ .Jj^ rezuliite our ncivo-'s fluids." 

107. 1^ f^^ To pirs ivo the spirit. ^ ^ Ch\vdng.|s;5e 
said, "" For ihe suppon of the body, and for ihe ]/]f {;$ pre- 
servatioii of l/ip spirit, iliere are ceriain laws, whicii consti- 
tute what i-< rail (I n.ilnre." 

In I hii ^ ^ ^ Discourse on ili.j fo^fcrinir of human 
lifr-.. we rc.id, •Gul'ivaie your na'nrii. in oriler to |:^ ifi* 
preserve your spirit, and calm yniir mind, in order to ^ ^ 
keep yo,,r body i!i hcalih." 

ids. qi^ flji To britliti iln; spirit. In ihe commen'nry on 
the ^p JlJC Spring and A'Uunui Ilecoril drawn up by ^ rtj 
L u-''<.- w (jtid 0'^ t-^l!o\vin_' s!ai. in ut • '• Tiiosc woo 
caniioi advanc.; in learning', wliilsi imdor llie influence of 
custom feel thfir jfjf^ Tj^ spirits restrained, tuid when abroad 
in the wr'd. boast ol ihir infltience, and delight in excels." 

109. ^,|jlp Tiie a/.ure spirit. JQ ^ ^ Yuen-uu'ng- 
paon, qnoied from the ^ ^\ Spriui; and Autunm Record, 
says, that 'In the time of the )j§ Yin dynasty, the five 
plniet.-? canv! into conjnnction in the constellation ^ Scor- 
pio. Scorpio, he adds, is the ^ essence of the ^ jjjljj azure 
spirit ; when the /^ Chow dynasty came into j)ower, this 
spirit prevailed." 

Ill), y^ ftp To cleanse the spirits. ^ ^ Ler-she, in 
Iiis comnientary on ihe ^ PX Sj»rinir and Autumn Record, 
says, " The superior man ^ ^ composes his ideas, in or- 
der to )^ i\0 cleanse his spirit : and he cleanses his spirit, 
in order lo ^ ^ nourish his breaih or vital energies." 



48 

111. M 1$ To s^Lore up the spirit. The ^S f^'an-lo6, 
quoted iu the ^ ^ Spring and Autumn Record, says, 
" That which tlie body stores up is called jjj^ the spirit ; that 
which the light exhibits is called El^ brightness ; hence we 
m .y say, that to be elevated in dignity, and to be diffusive 
in benevolence, to ^ j^ stoj^e up the spirit^ and to exhibit 
brightness, is the way of heaven," 

1.12. f^^ jfll]^ To give rest fo the spirit. J|^^i^ Uwae- 
nan-tsze said, " If you ^1 Jt |l|l employ your spirit much, 
your spirit will leave you ; but if you ^ ^ jjjl^ give rest 
to your spirit^ your spirit will remain with you." 

113. 1'^ )[i$ To cause the spirits to return to rest. J^ 
1^ -^ Hwae-nan-tsze said, " f|.^ ^ Shin-nutig first inven- 
ted the harp, in order to jljf f|p cause the animal spirits to 
return to rest.''^ 

114. ^i] ijifl The punishing spirit. In a work calkd gg^ 
^ Yue-yuen, it is said, '^ ^ ^ The duke of Kth dreamed 
that a /[ilp /^ spiritual person, witli white hairs on his face, 
with tiger's claws, and holding a baltle-axe, stood up in tha 
west corner of tlie hall. The duke, on uwakinij, called the 
historian ^ Yin, (o divine what it could be. Yin said, Ac- 
cording to your description, it must be 4^ IJJC Jiih-show ; 
who is the ^ j]]^ punishing spirit in heaven." See Theo- 
logy of the Cliinese, page 74. 

115. ^ iplf To approach the spirits. In a woric called 
tp imi Shin-keen, it is said, " Prayer and supplication 
should be sincere, in order to ^ jj^ approach the spirits, 
when they will certainly respond." 

1 16. IS f ^^ f'i^^f'ce spirits. The f^ j}|f Liin-hang says, 
" There are twelve fi^ spirits that superintend every dwel- 
ling ; the green dragons and white tigers are reckoned among 
the twelve. The dragons and tigers are J^ ^1^ jierce spirits, 
and fftckoned among the ]£ ^ correct demons of heaven.'' 

117. ^ ijj^ The divining straws marvellous. The same 
w^ork says, '' The common people believe in prognostications 



49 

and divining straws. They say, that to use prognostications 
is to inquire of heaven, and to employ soothsaying is to 
inquire of earth ; that ^ jjjlp the divining stravjs are mar- 
vellouf, and gg ^ that the conjuring tortoise is efficacious ; 
while both the signs and numbers are attended by verifica- 
tions. Hence they discard human deliberations, and resort to 
prognostics and divinations ; they pay no attention to the 
propriety or impropriety of a thing, but believe in lucky and 
unlucky omens." 

118. ^ ^^ The spirit of the earth. The same work 
Bays, " Any motion of the ground disturbs the i^ 1$ spirit 
of the earth. Thii spirit of the earth is indulgent towards 
men, and has no evil intentions ; if wc merely aim at dwelling 
contentedly and at ease, the ;(j) |^ 7/imc/ of the spirit will 
not be enraged, and even without selecting lucky days, 
we shall avoid calamity. But the i jfj^ ^^ ^ spirit re- 
ferred to as the spirit of the ground has no disposition to 
excuse people ; and if evil men disturb it, let them choose 
lucky days ever so much, it will be of no avail." 

119. § 1$ The spirit of the eaves. A work entitled 
jlS mf Tuh-twan says, " In the last month of summer j^ 
5J^ the subtile qualities of the ground begin to be vigorous, 
and sacrifices should be offered to the central roof, and to 
^J 1^ the spirit of the caves, in the house. When sacrifices 
are offered to the central roof, the table should bo set up un- 
der the window." 

120. ^ ^ The genius of millet. The same work says, 
" ^ W ^'^^ genius of millet^ named ^ Choo, was the 
eon of Ji^ [if ^ Le-shan-she. He was skilful in the cul- 
tivation of all kinds of grain. ^^ ^ Chuen-heuh appoint- 
ed him to be the superintendant of the fields. Millet was 
the principal grain, hence millet was chosen as the name of 
this genius." 

121. ^ ill* The spirit of the superior principle of nature. 
A work called 0^ 1^ Tsan-tung-k'hc says, " ^ The 

G 



50 

rational soul is ^ ij^^ the spirit of the superior principle of 
nature^ and the 6j|^ animal soul is [^ f^ the spirit of the 
infei'ior prificiple of nature. ^"^ 

A work entitled ^ ^^"EHwang-keih-king-she says, 
" ^ ihe superior principle of nature is honourable, and jjEp 
spiritual] being honourable it is served by other things." 

122. [jg Jlj^ The spirit of the inferior principle of nature. 
See No. 121. 

123. f^ ijjl^ To make use of one's spirit. The ^|^ ^ 
Tsan-tung^k'he says^ "Men in clear daylight ^2^ employ 
their souls, and ^ fj* make use of their sjpii^its.^^ 

124. "^ ^ To enlarge the mind. The ^ J^ Chung- 
lun saySj *' Learning is that whereby we HJ f^ enlarge our 
minds, and ^ ^ expand our thoughts, ^ ^ delight our 
feelings, and ^ '[^ regulate our dispositions ; it is the 
highest employment of a sage." 

125. ^ 1^ To relax the spirits. In the -^ ^ 'J^g Com- 
mentary on the Water Classic, it is said, that " To the 
west of the ^ llpg" Tseen-gaou hill, there are two rocks ; 
about fifty or sixty paces to the south of these you come to 
a brook, where there is a ^j i|y P|L tablet to commemorate 
the relaxation of the spirit of the teacher '['^ y^ Teen- 
moo, who retired from the world to this hill.'' 

126. ^ ifl^ The copper fairy. In the same work we 
read, that " In the district of ^ 3^ Chiing-gnan, in the pre- 
fecture of jwj ^ Hang-yang, there is a pond called ^t ^ 
Leo tang : people say, that in this pond there is a ^ |^ 
copper fairy ; and to this day, the sound of copper is some- 
times heard in the water, when the water suddenly turns 
green, and has a copperish taste, at which time the fish in it 
die." 

127. jl^ fl^ The spirH of war. In a new work published 
by ^j ^^. Lew-hee, we have the following statement, about 
the diagrams and their connection with the elements: ''Fowls 
belong io the ^ thuy diagram, (which is arranged in the 



51 

western quarter), metal (the element supposed to be connected 
with the wes') constitutes the ^ ^ essence of military 
weapons. Tlie horse belongs to the ^g le diagram, (which 
is arranged in the south quarter); fire (the element supposed 
to be connected with the south) is emblematical of the 
^ f$ spi?Ht of war ; thus it is, that when the war chariots 
are set in motion, the flying fowl move in unison." 

128. TC w '^^^ natural spirits, or the original spirit. In 
a work called the 'fjj § Book of transformations, we read^ 
" By finding the door to the]^ ^ widely-expanded breath of 
nature, we obtain the root of existence ; discovering the 
seat of the J^ jj|$ natural spirits, we secure the light of life." 

In an ode regrarding the ^ 1^ escorting of the spirit, 
written by ^ JE Yen-ting, occurs the following expression ; 
" We receive happiness from JC f^ ^/^e original spirit.'^ 

129. ^ 1^ The great spirit. In the same work, we read, 
*'j5C ^ "^^^ S^^^^ expanse is one expanse, "j^ f^ the great 
spirit is one spirit ; j^C ^ ^he great breath of nature is one 
breath ; ^J^ )f^ the great frame of the universe is one frame ; 
these in name are four, but in root they are one; that which 
we cannot hold if we would, nor get rid of if we wish, is called 
the 5E — perfect unity." 

130. I^j|$ Resembling in spirit. In the same work we 
read, " The spirit of j[^ _t the great Supreme is the spirit of 
the wide expanse ; the spirit of 5C^ heaven and earth is the 
spirit of ^ ^ the superior and inferior forma of matter ; the 
spirit of J^ ^, i«en and beasts is the spirit of J^ [^ flesh 
and blood, ^ IRI W f ^ ^^^^^ ^^ which they resemble each 
other is spirit, ^ H 1^ |^ but that in which they differ 
is form." 

131. *^fi|l The sprite of the Han river. In an enquiry 
into the odes of 3l FS iPI Wang-ying-lin, we rejid, " At the 
Han river there is a wandering female, called ]^fi^ the sprite 
of that river] she ia so denominated because she is frequently 
to be seen, but never can be found by those who seek for her." 



52 



132. ^ f\$ The grand spirit. In a work called the ^ 
^ Loo-she, we read, that " When /^ ^ p\ Jin-hwang- 
she died, ^P jf|ip the grand spii^it succeeded him, who reigned 
300 years, this being quintupled occupied a period of 1,500 
3^ears." 

133. 1^ ^ The porcine sprite. In the same work we 
read, "The^^ twan character signifying a pig, used in di-- 
vination, is the name of the forest rhinoceros, or the ^ )|^ 
porcine sprite. This rhinoceros is single-horned, and is sup- 
posed to understand prognostics and felicitous omens ; hence 
the ^ hog character is used in divination." 

134. ^ Jt\$ The red fairy. In a supplement to the same 
work, we read, that " ^ ^ Sun-she, in his book on felici- 
tous omens, says, that the ^ bird of paradise is the j^ es- 
sence of the ^ jf[^ red fairy ^ and the assistant of the argui 
pheasant." 

135. ^ 1$ The border spirit. In a work called @ ^ 
^ ^S. Yew-yang-tsa-tsoo, we read, that '-'• In a lane of the 
^ ^ city of Seuen, in the temple of ^ i^ Tsing-yiih, in 
a Buddhist monastery^ at the western side, there is (the 
image of) ^ jf|^ a border spirit ; a very ancient relic ; to 
which, before the time of ^ 7[J Ching-yuen, the western 
borderers twice came to swear ; on both those occasions, they 
brought (the image of) this spirit, and put it on the altar to 
swear before it. People say, that it has some degree of 
efficacy." 

136. ^ 1^ Shadowy sprites. In the same work we read, 
that " A priest of Taou, called §j> 7)^ ^ Kwo-tsae-chin, 
used to say, that there were nine shadows belonging to each 
individual ; he also said, that these nine shadows had each 
names. Of these ^ |^ shadowy sprites one was called 
7^ ^Yew-hwang, another |@ ^ Wang-leang." And so on, 
up to nine. 

137. S^ li^ The spirit of the brain. The same work 
says, that " ^ f^ the spirit of the bruin, is called /^ Jjj 



53 

Keo-yuen ; the spirit of the eye is called ]^^ Heu-keen ; 
the spirit of the nose is called ^Jf ^3E Chung-lang-wang ; 
and the spirit of the tongue is called ^ j^ Che-leang." 

In the poem of ^ |S L6-yin we meet with the following 
line : *• When the green and white, (or spring and harvest) 
come on, much attention is directed to |^ jfl^ the spirit of 
the brain. ^^ 

13S. ^ f^ The spirits of music. The g^ H ^ 
Yew-yang-tsa-tsoo again says, ** In the time of ^ ^ Yung- 
ching, in the eastern market, the daughter of one ^ '/(Q 
Wang-poo, about fourteen years of age, had two polypi 
growing out of her nostrils, which when touched occasioned 
so much pain that it went to her very heart. No medicine 
was found that could heal the disease ; one day a 
Buddhist priest, took a little powder and blew it up her 
nostrils, upon which lie took out the polypi and went away. 
Not long after, a young man riding on a white horse knocked 
at the door, and hearine Wang-poo relate the circumstance, 
sighed and said,*^^^ '^The divine Ruler having missed the 
two ^ ^\^ spirits of music, has just discovered that they were 
hid in your daughter's nostrils ; I have been sent at the com- 
mand of the Divine Ruler to take them, and little thought Uiat 
this priest has obtained them first. P^'or this I shall be blamed.' " 

In a work entitled ff^ ^ ^ ^ Fan-yTh-ming-e, it is 
said, that " ^ 1^ ^ ^ Keen-ta-po-t'heen, is the ^ j|f 
spi?it of music, she dwells on earth at the ~f* ^ Shih-pabu 
hill; when Heaven wishes to have any music, the body of 
this spirit exhibits some unusual appearances, after which 
the spirit ascends to heaven." 

139. >9 1$ The genius of wine. In a work called J^ 
§^ J^ ^ Hae-luh-tsuy-sze, it is said, that " When a man 
at a convivial feast, after nine vomitings, still feels his power 
to drink undiminished, he may be called ]^ [jj^ the genius 
of wine. ^^ 

140. ^ fli The genius of hair. In the same work it is 



54 

said, "^^ 1^ The genius of hair is ^ ^ Heuen-hwa." 

141. ^ 1^ To cause the spirit to rest. The ^fe :§' ^ 
Wan-shin-luh contains the following description of a lady : 
" When her form was seen, and her voice was heard, all bore 
witness, how her ornamental flowers flew abroad, and her 
bracelets moved about, enough ^ jjlp to cause one's spii^it 
to rest satisfied with delight.'^^ 

142. ^ )f($ The genius of tea, In the explanation of the 
poetic allusions, employed during the Tanj dynasty, we 
meet with the following statement : *' I^ J^ ^Liih-hung- 
tseen published three volumes of a work on tea, hence the 
men of his time looked upon him as the ^ ^S genius of 
tea.'' 

In the poems of {^ J^ Lilh-yew, we meet with the fol- 
lowing : " When a man's house is adorned with mulberry- 
trees and hemp- plants, do not you begin to laugh ; the next 
year you will find him aspiring to be ^ ^!p the genius of 
'tear 

143. ^ jfif The essence of China root. The TfC ^ 
General work on Natural History, says, •' That which is 
found in the centre of the ^ ^ China root, is called ^ 
f^ the essence of China root. ^ ^ Kwei-sung, in his 
historical essays, has written this >^ ^ the refined part of 
the China root ; for it is the |t|| '^ essential or refined part 
of the 7^ pine, which is formed by concreting under ground, 
hence it is denominated, both ^^ ^ the refined and ^i^ J||p 
the essential part of the China root."^^ In the above quota- 
tion, the synonymous nature of jj^ Shin and ^ Ling, is 
most strongly marked, as is also the fact of both terms here 
referring to the essential qualities of a thing, physically con- 
sidered. 

In an ode on ^ Jj^ amber, written by ^ j^ $§/ Wei- 
ying-wuh, we have the following couplet : " That which is 
now the old "^'^'^ essence of China root, was originally 
the secretion of some cold pine." 



55 

In the ode of ^ ^ Kea-tabu, is the following line : " By 
the side of the pines on the ^ ^ Hwa mountain, we ga- 
ther the ^ 1^ essence of China rootJ^ 

In an ode on the ^ pine, written by ^J ^ Lew-keen, is 
the following couplet : " This whole spot was planted by 
some priest of a former dynasty, and underneath we ought 
certainly to find ^j^ :^ j|^ Uie essence of China rooV^ 

144. ^ i^ A wandering ghost. In the 'f[^ ;^ nine 
chapters written by jg^ J^ Keuh-yuen, we find the follow- 
ing rhapsody : " In my dream, I ascended to heaven, and 
when my soul was about midway, I could not find the 
milky way ; I therefore directed a ^ f^ wanaering ghost 
to prognosticate for me, and obtained for answer, that my 
ambition was excessive and beyond all bounds." 

145. "i^ flp A distressed mind. In the same work we 
read : " Mournfully I sigh, with ^ ff^ a distressed mind^ 
•while my ^ spirit wanders in thought far away." 

146. ^ f^ To perforate the spirit. Jg j^ Keuh-yuen, 
in the account of his wanderings, says, " While the one jJ^ 
breath of nature Jy f^ perforates iny spirit^ I feel all easy 
and natural within." 

147. §^ flfl To present offeiings to the spirits. In an 
irregular poem, written by )^ )§• Kaou-tang, we meet with 
the following elTusion : " Bring in the pure victim, pray in 
the pearly hall, §b| ^ |^ present offerings to all the spiiHts^ 
jand perform rites towards the principle of unity." 

14S. 5 ifiT ^^'^ ^^® spirits. In an ode on the five 
ispirits, found in the Record of Music, in the Han dynasty, 
we have the following : '' Let the 5 T* fi'^^ spirits assist, 
including those in the four borders j here where the territory 
is wide, and where the willows spread their waving branches 
overhead." 

On a tablet in the temple of the j[||^ manes of ^ ^ the 
king of Tsob, at ^:^ VVoo-hiug, inscribed by [^ ^ ^ 
Keen-wan-te, of the ^ Li<"ang dynasty, there is the follow- 



56 

iiig statement : ''■ Formerly ^ ^ Wob-wang enquired of 
y^ ^ T'hae-kung, what were the proper ceremonies to be 
observed towards 35 ifl* t/ie Jive spirits of the seasons • 
these ceremonies '^ ^E-chih had previously made known 
to 35 )^ WoO'heen, when the regulations contained in the 
three sections were read;" but these sections having been 
lost, the inquiry became the more necessary. 

149. ^ ifl$ 'The nine spirits. In a work called the 
Nine Lamentations of ^ |nj Lew-heang, the following 
rhapsody occurs : " He summoned the y£^ ^^ iiine spirits 
as they returned from the poles ; and set up the variegated 
rainbow, in order to call and direct them." 

Among the seven scrolls, written by^^ YOn-keih, oc- 
curs the following wild fancy : '' We masticate and ruminate 
the flowers of the ^ ^ three etherial ones, while we eject 
and swallow again the beard of the "fl^ |^ nine spiritual 
ones.'''' 

150. ^ w To perform rites to the spirits. In an irre- 
gular poem on the palace of the y* ^^ sweet fountain, oc- 
curs the following couplet : " They assembled in the gar^ 
den, where ^ f^ rites were per^ formed to the spirits ; and 
ascended the hall, where praises and prayers were offered 
up." 

151. ^ fl^ Majestic mien or dignified carriage. In the 
same work, speaking of the palace, the writer says, that " It 
vied with the hanging gardens of the *^ ^ Divine abode ; 
and re&embled the j^ f(^ majestic mien of the j^ — Per- 
fect Unity." 

In an irregular poem on the Bay and White Horse, occurs 
the following couplet : " (The horse) is that wherewith we 
add honour and reverence to a ^ ^ dignified mien, while 
we escort, and by inspiring awe, clear the way before (the 
emperor.)" 

152. !^fi^ To express one's mind. ]^ jjj Fung-yen, 
in a letter written to ^j] ^ Tang-yii, says, " I consider that 



Ol 



were I to ^ if|$ express my mind, and ^ ^^ exhibit all 
my thoughts, then the oratory displayed at ]|fp ^ Leaou. 
ching, and the discussions carried on at ^^^ Pih-ke, could 
no longer claim to be accounted difficult." 

In an ode on the flute, occurs the following : " By this you 
may ^ ^ penetrate the soul. ^ f^ and influence inani- 
mate things ; you may also ^ ^ express your very 
thoughts, and Pp ,^, declare your secret intentions." 

153. ^ |[i^ To alarm the spirit. In an irregular poem, on 
passing through the invisible word, one says, " The sun 
mounts on high, and 5^ ]0 alarms my spirit ; but though 
the journey which I take is long, I do not feel bewildered." 

154. ^ f^ The shade of Hwang-te. In the same 
work, we read. "I^fj^ The shade of Hwdng-te is now dimi- 
nutive and unsubstantial, but when I study the science of 
prognostics which he handed down, I find a correspon- 
dence to his views in my own breast." The commentator 
here says, that ^ Hwang refers to 5^ ^ Hwang-te, who 
wrote a work on the interpretation of dreams. 

155. }j^ 5!^ Body and spirit. In an irregular poem on 
the eastern capital, occurs the following : " In this way the 
people may wash away their stains, and cleanse their defile- \ 
ments, until the mental mirror becomes extremely clear : but , 
in order to this, both J^ fH^ body aiid spirit must be kept ^ 
silent and still, and both eyes and ears be prevented from 
busy occupation." 

In a discourse on the preservation of life, occurs the follow- 
ing directions : '* In your expirations and inspirations, in 
your ejectings and swallowings, in your food and clothing^be 
careful to sustain your whole person, and thus cause 7^ jjjip 
both body and spirit, to maintain a near connection with 
each other, and the ^ ||| external and internal man to be 
mutually assisting." fg ^ Taou-tseen has an ode on '' Jj^ 
^ ll^ the body, the shade, and the spirit.'' 

H 



58 

156. \ i[l$ The spirits of men, or men and spirits. y£ 
jg] Pan-ko6, in an irregular poem on wandering abroad, 
says: "Borne along the stream of time, I make my obser- 
vations, admiring thost who display their knowledge of 
human nature, while they carry on their military opera- 
tions ; considering what are the tendencies of J\ jfl^ the 
spirits of 7)1671, when tbey commence their operations, and 
when they avail themselves of the felicitous omens of crows 
and fishes to ascertain their destinies." 

In the account of the music of Imperial Hea, found in the 
books of the i[^ ^ northern Tse dynasty, occurs the follow- 
ing : " A. ifl^ ^^^^'^ ^^^^ spirits are but a small remove from 
each other ; the responses of the dark mysterious world fol- 
low close upon the enjoyment of the fumes of incense." 

157. ^ i!^ To settle the spirits. In an irregular poem 
on a bamboo fan, writen by ^ ^ Pan-koo, we meet with 
the following couplet : " Setting in motion the air and dri- 
ving away the heat, we make ourselves cool and comfort- 
able : ^ ^ composing our bodies and ^ jjj^ settling our 
spirits, we promote the relaxation and growth of our whole 

frame," 

15S. ^ 1^ To be able to attain inscrutable wisdom. ^ 
^ Chang-hang had inscribed on the basket, containing the 
appendages of his official seal, the following couplet : 
"Handing down my glorious name to succeeding generations, 
my sons and grandsons ^ |j^ will be enabled to attain in- 
scrvtable wisdom^ 

159. 1^ 5(^ To hold fast one's spirit. ^ -^ Tsae- 
yung, in his explanatory instructions, said, "The dispersings 
and growings of nature, while they fill up all space, take 
their pattern froai the celestial arrangements : thus when 
things go on prosperously I meet with enlargement ; but I am 
able, if such be my lot, to put up with abatement, to comply 
cheerfully with the will of Heaven, and acknowledge the ar- 
rangements of fate : thus I ^ ii\!^ hold fast my spirit, and 



59 

pj^ Qj ^iv^ it'p^=^^ to my own mind." 

160. if ijjlp To compare the spirils. "^ ^ Tsaoii- 
chih, in a eulogy on the ^ jjj^ spirit of the land^ says, '• Wlien 
we honour and erect an altar to ^g the spirit presiding 
over grain, we obtain a favourable year; in intention we as- 
similate this to the ^ spirit presiding over the land : >7 ^ 
vjhile we compare these two spirits together^ and ^ t^ P^^t 
their temples side by side." 

161. ^iji^To be equal with spiritual beina^s. A work called 
"X^ J^ Teeih^k'he, whilst panegyrizing some one, says, " He 
was of the same capacity with heaven and earth, of equal 
brightness with the eun and moon, in his mysterious trans- 
formations he was^lip equal to .'Spiritual beings, and ^9 
^g intimately connected with invisible agencies." 

162. '^^ JIlIp To purify one's spirit. The same work says, 
" i^ W ~T^ Heuen-weNtsze, dwelling retired in the hall 
ofy^^ vast emptiness, fled away and escaped from the 
common herd, to ^ jf|l|l purify his spirit, and ^ ^tran- 
quillize his soul." 

^ J^ Che-yCi, in his lamentation over ^ Saou, (Keuh- 
yuen) said, " He was wise and intelligent, in regard to his 
own settlement; he estimated the character of the age, in order 
to enter on oflTice or retire ; when times were favourable, he 
extended his views over the whole world ; and when the re- 
verie, he 5^ f(* purified his spirit in hia sombre retirement." 

1^^- M 1$ "^^ influence spiritual beings. The -|j ^ 
Tselh-k'he is again quoted, as follows : '^ The beauty of dis- 
cussion is, that it can cause living streams to spring up in a 
dry pool, and blossoms to shoot out from a dead tree ; argu- 
ment may perhaps /^^ move invisible, and ^j[ '^ iiiflu- 
ence spiritual beings, how much more may it affect human 
passions, which are so near to us." 

164. -^ %^ To hold in one's spirit. ^ ^ Tsaou-chTh, 
in his admiration of hill-scenery, says, "Rambling about on 
the northern mountain, I stretch out my nock among the con- 



60 

gealed vapours ; and having brushed away the mist from the 
glorious I dvens, 'g'ifl* I hold in my spirit, and still myself 
in perfect silence." 

Among unclassical works, there is an ode, containing the 
following expression : ♦''g' |^ ^ Holding in the ghost-like 
mists. ^^ 

165. ^ifi^ A living soul. In the odes of |^^^Foo- 
hew-yth occurs the following: "When the new born-babe 
comes to the gate of life, as it falls to the ground, it becomes 
a ^ l|$ living souV^ 

166. ^^ The abode of sprites, or the ghosts haunting a 
dwelling. In an irregular poem on the Yang-tize-keang, 
occurs the following: "The wondrous form (of the river) 
assumes its course, and ^ jjlr becomes the abode of sprites.'^ 

In an irregular poem on a small garden, written by j|^ ^ 
Yu-sin is the following couplet: '" ^ ^ f^ Repress the 
ghosts which haunt the house by the ^ ^ opposing stone; 
and ^ [Xf ^ keep back the fairies that wander about the 
hills by the B^ ^ reflecting mirror." See Morrison's Syl- 
labic Dictionary, under the ^ Chin character. The Chi- 
nese are in the habit of setting up stone tablets in various 
positions, to prevent as they think evil influences from com- 
ing in contact with human dwellings ; they also set up look- 
ing-glasses, where they think ghosts or fairies are likely to 
be wandering about, in order that the spectres may be fright- 
ened by their own deformity and retire. 

167. ^ ifjip The genius of metal. In a panegyric on 
the ^| ^ ^ Shan-hae-king, published by ^ 3^ Kw6-po, 
it is said, that " ^jjjj Juh-show, the ^f^ genius of 
9netalj has got white hairs, tiger's claws, and snakes issuing 
from his ears ; he holds in his hands a hatchet, and 
takes a general superin tendance over all the workers of 
iniquity ; he sets up his ensign at the Q |^ Se-o palace, 
and reverently carries out the inflictions of Heaven." 
under ^ jj^ ^ shin, section 114. 



61 

In the poems of j^ ^ Yu-si'n, occurs the following cou- 
plet : *' The thundering chariots and the din of war, arouse 
the sword in its scabbard, and awaken the ^^'^ genius 
ofmetaV^ 

168. ^ ^ To envelop the soul in mystery. ^ |^ 
Sun-cho, in an encomium on ^ ^ Labu-tsze, says : " His 
doctrine was uniform with that of ^ Yaou and ^ Confu- 
cius ; the traces of his accomplishments were marvellous and 
extraordinary ; he shut up the avenues to the mental mirror, 
and 5^ 1^ enveloped his soul in mystery^ by cutting off his 
connection with external things." 

169. $SS$To delight the spirit. _^J J| Uw-kwan , 
in some verses written in reply to ]§ fg; Leu- shin, says, 
** The sound of your poetry pleases my ear, the relish of 
your thoughts gratifies my taste, your fine composition im- 
proves my style, and your elegant language f^ jjif delights 
my spirit. ^^ 

170. PtCifll^ The sylvan elves, fflj ^ ^ Hing-tsz^- 
tsa^, in an irregular poem on the new palace, speaks of " TfjJ 
^ Sylvan elves, TJC ♦^ aquatic hobgoblins, j^^ marine 
sprites, and Jj ^^ mountain fairies." 

171. 5^1$ To distribute places to (he spirits. In the 
^ Jj^ Palace of Music, written by )^ ^ Yu-sfn, Occurs 
the following : " When (the em|>eror) goes to greet (the 
objects of worship,) he searches the records on the 
subject, while the officers of government J5 'W distribute 
places to the spirits in regular order." 

172. ^ i^ To assemble the spirits. |^ ^ Yu-si'n, in 
an ode on the abode of the genii, says, " At the golden stove, 
they have but just now compounded the pistils of flowers; 
while on the silver terrace, for a long time ^ i^9 ^^^ spirits 
have been assembled." 

173. ^ ^ The wandering of the spirits. 5ft ^ M 
Chang-keun-tsob, in an ode expressive of the emotions of 
his mind, says, " Solitary and still, dwelling alone, ^ jBf 



02 

I allow iny .<fpirits to wander?^ 

174. f^ 1^ To adjust one's spirits. In an ode which 
^ HH ^ T'hang.ming-hwang made on escorting n\ ^ 
^ ^ Sze-ma-ching-ching into retirement, occurs the fol- 
lowing couplet: " Amid woods and fouiitaint, be it your aim 
^ 1^ to regain your natural feeling ; and surrounded by 
flowers and shrubs, may you desire to |^ flj adjust your 
animal spirits.^^ 

175. ^ jji$ To correspond to spirits. In an ode, writ- 
ten by the same author, is found the following : <' From of 
old the custom has been handed down to keep the summer 
holiday, and there is no business which is not thought to 
ffi |i^ correspond to some spirit. ^^ 

176. ^ f$ The intelligent spirit. ^J ^, Lew-heen 
says in one of his odes, " The rapidly-sketched composition 
moved the ^ fl^ intelligent spirit (of the emperor.)" 

177. ^ ^ The spirits of the field. 3E J^ Wang-wei 
says, in one of his odes, '' The dancing-women depend for 
employment on the ^ ^ village altars, while ^he pipers 
and drummers present thank-offerings to the © f|^ spirits 
of the field.'' ^ 

178. ^ 1$ To scare one's spirits. "^ "^ Too-fob, on 
taking leave of ^P^Ching-leen, composed the following 
couplet : " Having passed the day in the perusal of your 
verses, the thought of now parting ^fjjlp scares my spirits.'' 

179. ^M ^^ 'Th^ ^P^"^^ ^^ ^^* waves. ^ ^ Le-kih, in 
an irregular poem on the 'g* J^ Han.yuen palace, says, 
'' May ^J ijiR the mountain genii ^S exhibit their effica- 
ciousness, and the J^ |^ spirits of the waves ff< ^ arouse 
their energies (in protecting this place.)" 

K H "WC P'he-jih-hew, on escorting the priest U ^ 
Yuen4sae back to Japan, composed the following couplet : 
" May 1§ -^ the directress of the whirlwind, in some sha- 
dy spot, observing the precepts of religion, rest awhile ; and 
may the ^]^^ spirits of thp waves, within their palace 



63 

maintaining the prescribed abstinence, retire, (so tliat you 
may voyage in safety.)" 

180. ^ fV^ To relax or release the spirits. In an ode 
composed by ^ ^, ^ Wel-ying-wuh, on a convivial meet- 
ing, the following couplet occurs : " Let us J^ ||^ rela>v our 
spirits^ giving up all restraint ; and let the drinking forfeits 
be frequently responded to." 

^ ^ ^ Soo-shiin-k'hin, in an ode replying to -^ ^ 
Tsze-le, said, '• The government is just now advancing cle- 
ver men in office, and you go sauntering about the lakes ]JJ 
^ to relax your spirit s.^^ 

In a work called ^ ^ '\^ H^ Yun-kcih-tseih-tseen, we 
meet with the following exhortation : " Being firmly resolv- 
ed, fJX, W release your spirit from the world; let your ^ 
mind be like a dry tree, and your ^ body like a cast-ofi" 
garment ; contemplate only that which is within, and listen 
only to internal suggestions ; while the myriad of external 
objects are banished far away." 

181. pi fl^ The sprite of the Keang river. ^ {t.!| Yii- 
ho says in his ode, " On returning follow the female bands, 
to present thank-offerings to the ^C fjP sprite of the Yang- 
tsze-keang-.^^ 

182. ^ 1$ To exhilirate the spirits. ^ j|| Ch'hang- 
keen, in an ode on listening to the harp, says, " Every finger 
moves in accordance with the laws of music, and every 
sound elicited ^ Jfl^ cxhiliratcs oiie^s spirits." 

In the ode of ^ ^ ]pf Ching-wan-kan, is the following 
line : " How ^ Jjj^ exhilirating to the spirits is the morn- 
ing dew, dri])ping from the eaves of the elevated terrace." 

^ 3^ Kea-tabu saya in his ode, " The sight of the over- 
flowing pond, and the zephyrs playing in the bamboo grove, 
constantly occasion in me ^ |$ an exhiliration of spirits ^ 

183. {§> If To detain the spirits. ^ § !}# Sze- 
k'hung-too, in his ode, says, " The smoke and mists rising 
high, yet linger about the temple; while the banyan and 



64 

bamboo, with their dark shadows |!y ^ detain one's spirits 
in the vicinity." 

184. @ ifl* The sprites of the southern regions. In the 
ode of ^^ ^ Le-twan, occurs the following : " Upon the 
reeds and rushes, there are no J^ J^ wild geese from the 
northern wastes, but among the willows and mulberries 
there are ^ f^ sprites from the southern regions. ^^ 

185. ^ ^ The attendant spirits of the palace. ^ ^ 
Levho, in an ode on the services of the heavenly world, writ- 
ten on green paper, says, '* The azure rainbow strikes 
against the door tablet, and calls to Q jf[^ the attendant 
spirits of the palace ] whereupon the great dragon and the 
pearl-white dog open heaven's portals." 

186. JIQ f^ The sprite of the Seang river. ^ ^ Lb- 
ho, in a sonnet called ^ -f' ^ Te-tsze-ko, says, '' ^^ i[{9 
The sprite of the Seang river played on his harp, to 
greet the son of the divine ruler." 

^J lS Wj Ijew-yu-seih has got two odes, one on the ^ 
Jfg jjjip sprites of the Seaou and Seang rivers^ and the other 
on the palace of music. 

1S7. ^ f^ To excite one's spirits. The writer just 
named has an ode containing the following account of a 
fairy : " Her body was so light, that it seemed as if she had 
no bones ; so that the observers all felt ^ "f^ their spirits 
excited. ^^ 

188. ^^ ifl^ The essence of fermented liquor. |& 5^ ^ 
Pih-keu-yih says, in his ode ; *' ^ |$ The essence of fer- 
mented liquor is most exhibited every || twelfth day ; and 
the J§ ^ virtues of distilled liquor are best perceived at the 
9P hour of six in the morning." 

189. g$ f|$ To harmonize the spirits. M M T& 
Hwang-fob-sung, in a preface to an irregular poem on the 
Great Abstruse says, " Thus you may be able to ^ flf har- 
m(miz€ your spirits^ maintain your agreeableness, embrace 
the right way, and sing of virtue." 



65 

190. ^ iji^ To tranquillize the spirit. BJ ^ ^ Sze- 
k'hung-too says in his ode, *' I have travelled till 1 am wea- 
ry, and now I am grey-headed ; but, having returned home 
to sleep, I have already ^ jj^ tranquillized miy spirit J^ 

191. ^ 1^ To constitute the spirit. In the ode of ^ 
^ ^ She-keen-woo we read : " Every kind of Jg[ ^ 
rational energy combines J^ ||^ to constitute the human 
spiiit] while the pearly gateway and golden hall (of the 
mind) are daily renewed." 

192. j^ fif A stupid spirit. ^ ^ ^ Le-heen-yung, in 
a song regarding a stone statue, says, "It stands up in the 
midst of the hall, just like jf^ f^ the stupid (image of a) 
spirit y 

193. ^ jjj$ The sprite of the Yellow rirer. ^ ^ 
Tsad-seang says in his ode : "The temple drummers pre- 
sent their thank-offerings to the JpJ jflip sprite of the Yellow 
River:' 

191. ^ H^ To present thank-oflerings to the spirits. [^ 
J^ Luh-yew says, in his ode: "Each family has made an 
engagement with the women next door, that to-morrow on 
the lake pier they will go to see people ^ fl^ presenting- 
thank-offer inrrs to the spirits.^' 

195. ^ f(p The genius of silk-worms. |^ ^jjjf Liih-yew 
eays, in his ode, " At evening they inebriate ^ ||[^ the ge- 
nius of silk-worms, by pouring out for him goblets full of 
generous wine." 

k3 ^L iM Chaou-mang-t'heaou, also, says in his ode : 
** Again let us bow and thank ^ jjj^ the genius of silk- 
worms ^^ 

196. ^ 1^ The verdant spirit. ^ J^ Luh-yew has 
another line, as follows : " Let us condole with the ancient 
wandering ^ 0^ verdant spirit V 

197. ^ jj\^ An air of ease. 5S?^ Ciiang-hv^^ae, in his 
ode, has the following line : " Even ^ )^ Nan-wei did 
not dare to contest the palm with her for ^ |^ an air of 

I 



66 

ease and gaiety. ^^ See Morrison's Syllabic Dictionary, 
page 1S6. 

198. ^ f^ The fairies of the brooks. ^ \\^ Wang- 
hwuy, in his bacchanalian song, says, " Let the J^ f Ip /ai- 
ries of the brooks hand out the ladies of the mulberry-branch, 
who, with their variegated sleeves and elegant carriage, can 
set forth their graceful frames." 

199. ^ fl^ The genii of the withes. ^ J^ Chin-shin, 
in a sentiment written on a drawing of plum-trees, says, 
" To take care of these plants let us engage the ladies of the 
moon, and to defend them from harm let us trouble the |^ 
B^ ge7iii of the withes^ 

200. H j[l^ The genius of the sun. In an explanation of 
foreign terms (probably Indian,) we have the following : 
" ^$^] 55 Soo-le-a means Q jj^ the genius ofthesuny^ 
The work called JH "1:^: ^ K'he- she-king says, " The 
celestial mansion of the sun is in length and breadth fifty- 
one ti^ "fij degrees, and the same in height." 

201. y^ tt Th® genius of the moon. In the same ex- 
planation of foreign terms, we find also, that i^ ^ Soo-mo 
means the ^ ^ genius of the r.ioon. The ^ iJi; ^ 
K'he-she-king says : '' The celestial mansion of the moon is 
in length and breadth forty-nine degrees." 

202. f5C iiff ^^^ S®"" °f ^oK\^. The same explanation 
of foreign terms says, that, " 5C ^ fl$ "^^^ cunning spirits 
of heaven are also called ^ jjj^ the genii of song ^ 



203. -J^ )p The spirits of fowls. In the work called § ^ 
^ ^ Yun-keih-tseih-tseen, we have the following: " The 
rule for eating and drinking, so as to nurse and preserve 
human life, says, ' There are thirty-six j% f^ spirits of 
fowls ; on the days when these are supposed to preside, the 
particular fowls which are then represented must not be 
eaten.' " 



* Suria is the word used for the sun in the Kawi lan- 
guage, which is of Indian origin. 



67 

204. $5 W "^0 convey the spirit The same work says : 
" Men only think of nourishing their JJ^ bodies, and do not 
think of cherishing their ^^ spirits ; when they have no re- 
gard for the jjjfp spirit, and only think of the ^ body, it is 
because they do not understand, that the J]^ body is merely 
the ^ carriage which ^ f^ conveys the spirit. When 
the ^ spirit departs men die ; when the ^ carriage is 
broken the horses gallop away : this ii a most important 
and- self-evident doctrine." 

205. J?i^ ^ The spirit of the tripod. The same work 
says, tliat " When ^ rj^ Hwang-te had completed the 
work on the ceremonies employed at the appointment to and 
tranferring of offices, he selected some copper from "^ ^ 
Show-yang, and cast therewith nine, tripods, at the foot of 
^ij lX| the King mountain, that he might provide a repre- 
sentation of >K — ' the Great Unity, at his capital of |^ j/ji 
Yung-chow : this ia the fHj| jjj^ spirit of the tripods, the very 
essence of plainness and elegance ; by these tripods you 
may predict good or bad fortune, and the long or short conti- 
nuance of dynasties ; these tripods can be sometimes light and 
sometimes heavy, they can stay with a family or remove ; 
boiling without fire, and filling without being replenished ; 
^ W ^ ^'^^y ^""^ t^^ly marvellous things." 

206. J^ ^ The spirit of the waves. ?15 ^ Kwo- 
sze-chaou, in a song used by those who drag boats, has 
the following expression : '' The \^ ^ spirit of the waves, 
passing beyond the nine circuits (of the heavens), investi- 
gates the right way and attains to thorough immortality." 

207. 'Ii ^ jf|$ Seven libations to the manes. A quota- 
tion is here made from ^ jj£ the Book of Rites, as follows : 
" One libation (to the inferior spirits, such as those presiding 
over the five parts of each dv^elling) denotes plainness; three 
libations (to those a little more elevated) indicate elegance ; 
five libations (to the spirits of hills and rivers) have a more 
general aspect ; but -{l ^ fl$ soven libations are employed 



68 

when sacrificino' to the manes of ancestors." 

208. ^)^ ^ ^ Shabu-keun is a marvellous fellow. In a 
historical document, referring to the time of ^ ^ Heaou- 
wob, we read that, ''^A)^ Le-shabu>keun once waited 
upon the emperor ; the emperor having some antique copper 
vases before him, asked Shabu-keun about them. Shabu-keun 
said. These vases were in the 10th year of ^ ^ ^ Hwan, 
the duke of Tse, spread out before ^ ^ Pth-tsin. Hear- 
ing this, the attendants examined the inscriptions on them, 
and found that they really did belong to the times of Hwan, 
the duke of Tse. The whole palace was surprised, and 
looked upon ^ ^ Sfi^ Shabu-keun as a marvellous fellow^ 
the man of hundreds of years.'' 

209. ^^ J§- 1* The spirits of highways and bye-ways. 
The Record of sacrifices, contained in the books of Han, 
says. that. " In § ^ Yun-yang, there is a temple dedicated 
to f^ JX fl^ the spirifs of hi ^hv) ays and hye-iimys, where 
they sacrifice to |^t ^ i Hew-too-wang." 

210. 1^ 3E P^ The spirit of the bamboo king. In an 
account of the southern barbarians, met with in the books 
of the later Han dynasty, it i« said, that, " ^ |p ^ The 
king of YaV'lang assumed the surname of^ Bamboo; 
some time afterwards he appointed his three sons to be mar- 
quises : and to this day. in the district of Yay-lang, they speak 
of fl^ the spirif of the three sons off^ 3E^/je bamboo Hng.^^ 

.2IJ db 11^ ifj^ 'phe spirit of Foo-vu. In the northern 
hi?torv. it is said, that '' In jgj ^ ^ Kaou-keii-le they ^ 
^ Jg believe in the doctrines of Buddha, and ^ % |f 
honour spiritual beings, with many ^ jjlwl superstitious ob- 
servances. There are two temples dedicated to spirits, one 
called ^ 1^ iil^ the spirit of Foo-yii, the imasre of whkh is 
in the shape of a female ; and the other called "^ ^ W ^^^ 
spirit of Kaou-tang, which the people say, is their first ances- 
tor, the son of Foo-yu ; for both of these, there are appoint- 
ed officers and men to guard them ; the first-named spirit is 



probably the daughter of }5f ^ Ho-pih, otherwise called ^ 
^ Choo-mung." 

212. ^ 7]i ^ Obtaining the water they become superna- 
tural. ^ ^ Kwan-tsze said, " Crocodiles and dragons. ^ 
}q^ when they §^et into the water, ffj jj]^ becoine supematu- 
ral, and can work wonders ; tigers and leopards, ^^: |1| 
when they get upon the mountains, \ffj J^ assume a digni- 
fied appearance, and can accomplish great things." 

213. ^ ^ ifi!^ The snake-holding spirit. Among the 
5^|j ^ writings of the various philosophers, we read, that, 
" The two hills of ;:fe f7 T'hae-hano: (Lat. 35. 20. North, 
liong. 3. 55. West of Peking) and EEj§Wang-iih (Latitude 
35. 18. North, Longitude 4. 25. West of Peking) are situated 
to the south of ^ »)}j Ks-chow, (or "j^ ]^ T'hae-yuen, the 
capital of ^J ^ Shan-se,) and to the north of JrJ ^ H6- 
yang, (or ^ ^ Mang-tsi'n.) A stupid old man, who lived at 
the northernmost of these hills, and had his dwelling in front 
of the mountain, was displeased, because the north side of the 
hill stopped up the ingress and egress to distant places in one 
direction. He therefoie assembled his family, and consulted 
about exerting their utmost strength, in order to level the 
precipice, thr.t he might open out a way towards ^ ^ Yu- 
nan, (or 'M ^ fi^ H6-nan fob), and )^ jig Han-yin, 
(both situated to the south of the above hills, in the province 
of H6-nan.) ^ ^ ;^ flf^ T//^' .ma/'r~/joldi7i<^ spirit hear- 
ing of this was alarmed, ^ ^ "J^ ^f^ and announced the 
circumstance to tlie Supreme." (See Inquiry, page 115.) 

214. tii"^ ijl^ The numerous ghosts of the Chaou fa- 
mily. In a work called 5^ ^ Fa-yen, we read, that " One 
asked, why it was that there weie j^ "jfr ^ Jl^ so many 
_^hosts in the Chamt family ? To which answer was re- 
turned, that ^ '^ ghosts and hobgoblins are^ -^ vague 
and uncertain things, ^ 1^^ ^ "t as if they were, and yet 
as if they were not ; that therefore the lages seldom referred 
to them." 



70 

215. -f- H: llf The twelve spirits. In the p^ ^ Lun- 
hang, we read, that '• The "p m jj^ twelve spirits (pi the 
months) such as ^ 0^ Tang-ming, ^ ^ Tsung-kwei, 
(fcc. are by mechanics called 5^ jfj^ the spirits of heaven. 
They should (according to them) be arranged in the posi- 
tions of the ^ 3: twelve horary characters, as they each 
possess a ip,^ ^ spiritual energy of a rushing kind ; and 
although they may not be equal to the ^fe ^ (spirit of) the 
whole year, yet they have some degree of influence in ruin- 
ing persons who are removing to other dwellings ; thus 
when men have done what they could to avert the calamities 
sometimes induced by the spirit of the whole year, they may 
still meet with difficulties brought on by the -f-* Hi fj^ 
twelve spirits of the months ; hence in removing their dwel- 
lings, how can they neglect caution !" 

216. ^ i. iii$ To propitiate the spirit of the ground. 
The same work says, "When people in general repair their 
dwellings, or dig holes in the earth, as soon as the work is 
completed, they ]^ ^ i f^ seek to propitiatehy a thank- 
offering the spii^it of the ground^ which is called ^ JL con- 
ciliating the ground. On this occasion, they make an image 
of earth, in ^ ^ the form of a demon^ and employ necro- 
mancers to offer prayers and sacrifices, in order to |^ j^ jfl^ 
propitiate the spirit of the ground.'*'' 

217. ^ O W ^^^ spirit of the ten horary characters. 
The same work says, that '' ^^ Demons are the ^ ^ 
]i^ ftp spirits of the ten horary characters. These ten ho- 
rary characters are ^ ^ ^|[ ^ certain distinct spirits 
of heaven, which assume the human form." 

218. ^^Ij^ A distinct spirit of heaven. The same 
work says, that " [^ ^ The spirit of the whole year is a 
3^^ll ^f^ distinct spiiHt of heaven^ just like the ^^ 
green dragon." 

219. !M ^ 1$ The spirit of Kwan-wo6. In a Record 
of Miscellaneous Fragments, we readj that " At the ^^ 



71 

Kwan-woo hill, the plants and grasses are as sharp as 
knives, the ground is also impregnated with steel ; in the 
time of J^ 3E Yue-wang, one ^ ?^ Kow-tseen, having 
directed his workmen to sacrifice to ^ ^ ;^ f^ the spirit 
of Kwdn-wod, with a white horse and a white cow, took the 
metal and smelted it, in order to make eight excellent blades, 
called ^ 3 Yen-jih, ^ y^ Twan-shwiiy, || ^% Chuen- 
P^h, il ^ Heu^n-tseen, '^ |% King-e, ]^^ Mee-hwan^ 
:g^P ^P Keo-seay, and ^ j^j Chin-kang ; all which he 
forged, in order to correspond to the influences of the eight 
points of the compass." 

220. ^ij ^ jjlp The manes of Fang-fung. In a Record 
of Strange Things, we read that," The common custom of 
the ^ Yue country is to sacrifice to ^ ^ ;^ f>^ the 
manes of Fang-fung, when they play up the old music of 
Fang-fung, and blow into a reed three feet long, which makes 
a roaring noise, while three men dance about with dishevel- 
led hair." 

221. :^ ^, )fi$ The genius of gold fish. In a Record of 
Strange Things, it is said, that " Within the great pass, there 
is ^ S^ W ihe genius of gold fish, regarding^ which the 
legend is as follows : In the second year of )ol ^ Chow* 
ping, no rain fell for a hundred days ; some persons were 
therefore sent to sacrifice to ^ [[1^ the spirits of heaven, 
when suddenly a fountain sprang up, from which some gold 
fish jumped out, and the rain descended." 

222. ^ jfe jjj^ The spirit of the demon dame. In the 
same work, we read that, '< In the southern range of moun- 
tains at }\^ J^ Seabu-yu hill, there is a ^ -^r demon hag, 
who at one birth, brings forth a thousand demons ; in the 
morning they are born, and in the evening she eats them. 
At the present day, in ^ ^ Tsang-woo, there is the ^ 
SRf Wf spirit of the demon dame, which is the same." 

223. ^ Hf ip The manes of E-yang. The same work 
saya, that " In the latter part of the ^ Tsin dynasty, swarms 



72 

of robbers arose, when the princess ^ ^ E-yang, fled from 
^ ^ L6-chung to J^- ^ L5-nan, (in Shen-se) accompa- 
nied by upwards of 2,000 soldiers ; at this place, she made a 
stand, in order to guard the capital. ^ ^ Lew-yaou at- 
tacked and defeated her ; the princess struck at Yaou with 
a sword, but missed him ; whereupon she stabbed herself. 
Ya6u, admiring her chastity and firmness, ordered that she 
should be honourably interred ; the people in the neighbour- 
hood erected a temple to her memory, which is now dedica^ 
ted to the ^ j^ jjp mantis of E-yaiig^ 

224. J^ ^1^ if{^ The shade of the purple dame. In a 
work called ^ ^ E-yuen, it is said, that " The legend of 
^^^^ ^ ife f ^ ^hade of the purple dame^ is as follows : 
This person was a concubine in a certain family, and the 
principal wife being very jealous of her, frequently set her 
about the dirtiest drudgery ; until, on the 15th day of the 
first moon, from grief and vexation she died. Hence the 
common people on the anniversary of that day, have been in 
the habit of making an image of the lady, and going by night 
to greet her in the water-closet." 

!^ j^ [^ Le-shang-ym says in his ode : "Yesterday ^ 
JIr W ^^^ shade of the purple dame departed ; and to-day 
^ J^ -jlg the messenger of the green bird slowly comes." 

225. ^ ^ W^ The green-clad spirit. Among the refe* 
rences to S^.^ Tsan-tsung-she, found in the work en- 
titled {^ ^ Loo-she, we read, that, " In the second year of 
^ 0)^ Yiing-ming, one^ ^ Seaou-keen, was magistrate 
of the ^ Yih district (in Sze-chuen). wh^n in arranging his 
garden and excavating a tomb in the rock, he found several 
thousand pounds weight of copper vessels, and three pecks 
full of pearl dust ; an inscription was also discovered, intima- 
ting that that was the grave of ^ ^ ]^ Tsan-tsung-she 
^§ Keen then directed the workmen to make a tomb of the 
same kind, and on the top he set up (the image of) fl^ a 
spirit, clad in green apparel, which is now the ^ J^ |$ 



green-clad spirit of ^ ^ Ching too, in |Z9 ])] Sze-chuen. 

226. S,|§ |tp The shade of T'hae-tae. In a work called 
the ^m^ ^ T'hung-teen, wc read, that "In the prefecture of 
j^ 'yfl Keaug-chow, and in the district ofp^V^ Keuh-yiih, 
there exists the ^ ^^ ifj$ shade of T'ae-iae.'^ Tins perron 
was fonnerly engaged in regulating the waters, particuhirly 
at the river ^^ Fun, hence he is sometimes called the genius 
of the Fun river. See an account of him in tlie ^x l5 Tsb- 
chuen history, amouji tiie record of events that happened in 
the first year of ^ -^ Ciiaou-iumg. 

227. ^ \}\L f^^ Tlie genius of the eating-house. Tn the 
addenda to the national annals, we read, that " In \Ji ^ 
Keu.nj:-nan province there was a magistrate of a district, who, 
on arriving at his post, observed a house on wiiich was 
written ^ ^^ ihe wine-vault ; outside tiicre w«: depicted 
(the figure of j jfj^ a spirit, called ;fX; J^^ Too-k'hang, (the 
genius of wine.) He then observed another house, on 
which was written i^ I^ the tea-shop, in front of which 
also there was depicted (the fl:,njre of) a spirit, called {^ '^ 
}^ Luh-hung-tseen, (ihe genius of tea. See No. 1 12.) 
Further on he observed a house, over whicli was writ- 
ten ^ ]^ the eatinsT- house ; there was al=^o (the figure of) 
W ^ ^'pi^ii here, and on asking what was its name, the ma- 
gistrate was told that it was ^ ffj \^ Ts'hae-pTh-keae, 
(the charncter? ^ fQ ^^ Ts'hae-pih-keae are here used 
^^^ ^ W M Ts'liao-pih-keae, all kinds of vegetables.) 
On hearing this, the magistrate burst out into a loud laugh, 
saying, This is certainly inappropriate here ;" there no beiug 
genius of eating-houses known by that name. 

228. tJ )jLi Wv Thesj)irit of the white tiger. In an ac- 
count of the assembled genii, it is said, that, " 5E "^ the 
royal mother sent as a messengf^r Q j^ ^ ijj^ thp spirit of 
the v)hite tiger. mount«^d on a white ^tLig, who came into the 
imperial "-ourt, and delivered over a map of the country." 

229. ^ -J* ifi^ The genius of Kea-tsze (the first conjunc- 

J 



74 

tion of characters in the cycle.) In the @ ^ ^ ^5 Yew- 
yang-tsa-tsoo, it is said, that " ^ ^^ /Jj^ The genius of 
Kea-tsze ii named y ^^ Kung-lung ; invoke this genius 
when you want to go into the water, and the nine sons of 
the director of the Yellow river will take you under their 
guidance, so that you may go into the water without being 
drowned. ^ ^ |^ The genius of Ked-seuh, (the eleventh 
conjunction of characters in the cycle) is named ^J BH 
Chih-ming ; invoke this genius when you enter the fire, and 
you will not be burned." 

230. l^^jj'^ The fairy of a small mound. In the 
sequel to the account of the wilderness ofy:|^0 [1} S::ang-shan, 
it ie said, that '^ When ^^^ Gnan-iih-yu was gover- 
nor of Canton, the district of '^ ^ Tse-keun was afflicted 
with a drought ; the governor prayed at the temple of ^f \1] 
^ the spirit of the Fang hill, and just as he was present- 
ing the incense, the spirit came from behind the screen, say- 
ing, in an agitated manner, I am only i^^-^^[^ the 
fairy of a sinall mound ; my srrength is small, and my juris- 
diction confined, so that I cannot get up winds and rain ; but 
I will go for you to the person who superintends this matter, 
and having obtained secret intelligence about rain, I will give 
you some intimation prior to the event. Tiiat night the 
governor dreamed that the fjl^ fairy said to him. You may 
look for a speedy shower of rain. The next morning it poured, 
and throughout a region of a thousarul le there was announ- 
ced a sufficiency of rain." 

231. i^ g^ l[j^ The spirit of the response-giving dragon. 
The play called >g^ ^ Ta-pin says, " That which coils up 
in the mud, and yet fiies up to Heaven, is the ^^ ^ ^ jj^ 
spirit of the response-giving dragon.''^ 

232. § i^ fl|l The fairy who visited the pillow. The 
ode of ^ ;j]Q »j^ Leang-yuen-te has the following expres- 
sion : "Again let us escort to the3S Uj ^^^^^ 'iJ^l M^ Ift 
the fairy vjho visited the pillow.''' This refers to ^^ ^ 



Seang, the kir»g of Taob, who dreamed one night that a ;^ 
^ fairy introduced herself at the side of Ins pillow, to his 
great delight. On awaking the next morning, it is said, that 
he escorted her to the 95 Woo hill, to which she belonged ; 
hence the allusion in (he ode. 

233. ^ § f'^ The temple-visiting spirit. ^ i^ Vq 
keaou says, in his ode : " At the golden altar is the ^ ^ 
)f\If temple-visitws^ spirit y 

234. ^ ^ f^ The mounted spectre of Yue. 3E |^ 
Wang-wei says, in his ode : " They all went together to 
the east of the city, to present their thanki to the ^ ^ W 
?jioutited spectre of the Yue ronntryy 

235. ^ 9E W^ The fairy who visited the king of Tson. 
-^ ^ Yin-tsj\n, in an ode which he made, on escorting J^[ 
^ -^ Chow-tsze.yew to the south of the ^] King moun- 
tain, (situated in the Tsob country), said, •' When you pass 
by the caverns of the 35 ^^<^o hill, you ouglit to see the ^ 
3H ^ fainjjhat visited the king- of Tsod'' See No. 232. 

236. )j5 BP f^ The spirit of the stone gentleman. ^ 
^ 3W vSzc-k'hung.shoo, in an ode which he made, on es- 
corting a friend that had been banished to foreign climes, 
said, '* (As you go along, you will see) the ^ ^ ^ demon 
of the banian-tree in the mountain village, and the /3^ ^|> 
^^ spirit of the stone gentleman in tlie river temple." 

237. ^ -fS ii^ The spirit of Chaou-to. 7C f^ Yuen- 
chin, in an ode which he made, on escorting a traveller about 
to proceed to the south of the Mei-ling pass, in Canton, said, 
*' Amonor the barbarians of the islands, you will meet with 
^ ]^^ thejdesccndants of Tseu-she ; and among the witch- 
es of the temple, you will encounter the ^ "j^ flp ^spirit of 
Chaou-to^ 

238. 35^i]i$ The spirit of the five viscera. |^ |^ 
^ Pih-keu-yih. in an ode which he composed when affected 
by business, said, "Sleeping, we soothe the ^ — F^ f^ 
disposition of the (luee representatives of the body ; and 



unemployed, w^ tranquillize the 5 ^ f 't' spirit of the five 
viscfro.^^ The three representatives of the body are said 
to be % ^ Pang.keu, g^ ^ Pang-chih, and %^ ^Pang- 
keaoii, who are thought to dwell in every human being; 
the five viscera are the ^ liver, j^j) heart, ^ lungs^ ^ 
kidnies, and ^If^ stomach. Regarding these latter, it is said, 
that f||( '"^ ^ f^ the soul is seated in the heart. 

239. ^ lli^ ^^ The fairies of the fragrant isle. |^ g| 
^^Luh-kwei-mnng, in an ode inscribed to the sacred nymphs 
of the temples, said, " How vast and extensive are the ^)^ 
^ ^|C wafers of the Tung-ting lake ! how full and abound- 
ing are the ^ lliffi ^^ fairies of the fragrant isle /" 

240. '^ % Jjj^ The shade of Wob-seu. ^ 1^^ L^e- 
chuncr. in one of his odes, says, '' These fiower.s remind one 
of ^ ^ S^ the countenance of Se-tsze, (a female celebra- 
ted for her beauty) ; and these billows make one think of 
i^ W^ f.^ i^^ sh^de of Wod'SeUi (a statesman employed to 
watch the tides.)" 

241. ^ ^ i[|$ The spirit of the iron ox. A priest 
named ffi ^ Woo-k'hb says, in one of his odes, " This 
river flows from the 1^ ^ ')]i waters of the milky way, 
and this city sends up its thank-offerings to ^ ^ f^ the 
spirit of the iron o.r." 

242. ^ ^ |)^ The spirit that controls the night. ^ 
J^ y^ Fan-ching-ta says in his ode. " Leaning over the 
balcony, we shall certainly see the ^ ^ '^ nymph that 
superintendp the flowers; and holding the candle, we shall be 
able to detain ^ ^ ftf I the spirit that controls th$ ni^hf.^^ 

243. jlC Zj fl^ The spirit of the Great Unity. ^ "^ 
Chin-leii savs in his ode : "]^^Wob-te personally sa- 
crificed to ^ ^ iij^ the spirit of the Great Unity. ^^ 

24 A. M ^ ij]^? The spectres that scream like the storks. 
5g ^ Chang- scu says in his ode : '« When the weather is 
cold, under the bridge, are heard ^ ^ jjt^ the spectres that 
scream like the storks.^^ 



77 



245. iE ylg iflf The fairies of the pearly pool. ^ 7^ 
Yuen-keo, in an ode on the garden of ^ ^ Tseih-leen, 
says, " From the middle walk there are ^^ BC '®" thou- 
sand precious branches, and among the elegant appearances 
are tfie 5^ Jfg j[!* fairies of the pearly pool.^^ 

216. ^ i^ lljl The spirit of the golden horse. M IS. 
"^ Ma-tsob-ch'hang says in his ode : " When the ^ f§ 
5^ clepsydra of the brazen dragon drips down, the spring 
sends forth its showers : and when ^g; ^ ^ the spirit 
of the golden horse Vipprosiches J the mists gather round the 
windows." 

247. ^ jg* ^ The fleet steed's bones becoming anima- 
ted. In an ode on the temple of the while horse, composed 
by ^ ^ Yew-heen, occurs the following expression : 
" When the constellation Scorpio is precipitated, the ^ >§• 
fleet stcedlf bones will be capable of jjjip animation.''^ 

248. fft^j t' W The epectre in the mirror. A priest 
named 03 >4^Ming. pun, in anode on the plum blossom, 
says, '' "^ \^ ]|1| ^ The fairies seen in the water, and 
i^ T fff' apparitions in the looking-glass^ come every 
night, leading each other by the hand, and haunt me in my 
dreams." 

249. 3l W 1$ "^P^*"^^® ^^^"^ ^^^^ pearly empyreal. In 
the same ode, the writer says, '' The flowers come flying 
down like 35 ff f^ spirits from the ptaily empyreaV 

250. 5C 'f^ ^^ Spirits of celestial art. In a work writ- 
ten wifh the view of explaining foreign terms, we read, that 
"^5?P^ Kin-nb-lo, also pronounced ^ ^[I J^ Chin- 
nb-16, means ^ flj^ something like spirits. As in Chinese 
we speak of beings that are men, and yet not men, but 
something like men, with horns upon their heads ; so that, 
when people see them, they say, are these men ?^no, they 
are not men. Hence they have been called ^f^ ^ jfl^ spirits 
of celestial art. A more recent writer says, that they are 
the ^ spirits of ^ 3^ ft i^eavenly music." 



251. i^ yf ^ Spirits of celestial music. See the pre- 
ceding. 

252. ^ ^ f^ The spirits that soar through space. 
The same work says, " |^ ^ ^ }m The spirits that 
soar through space are algo called ^ j^ fragrant darkness; 
they use neither wine nor flesh as food, but delight only in 
incense and darkness ; these are ethereal musicians, who 
wii-h inverted streamers wait upon the Lord of Heaven." 

253. ^P] Ijif The diamond spirit. In a work which treats 
of searching into secret things, we read, that *' Formerly the 
principle wife of a certain king, bore a thousand sons ; one 
wished to ask his thousand brothers to turn the wheel of for- 
tune, for ^ 5E th« ^i'^g of Buddha's native country ; and 
the other desired to protect his thousand brothers in commu- 
nicating instruction on behalf of ^ ^ Meih-tseih, ^ ^l] 
YSS} the diamond spirit.^^ 

254. 13 ^ 1^ The genius of wisdom. In the work en- 
tided ^ ^ -^ lU Yun-kelh-tselh-tseen, it is said, ''A- 
mongst them was ^ ^ f ^ the genius of wisdom ^ dressed 
in a garment that floated through the air." 

255. in? ^ 5C f{$ Recondite and still more recondite. 
^ ^ Chwang-tsze says, <' That which is deep and still 
more deep can be considered matter ; that which is |$ ^^ jC 
Jjlp recondite and still tnore recondite can be considered 
essence." 

^ 256. ^ ^ ff5 1$ Immortal and ethereal. The ^ ^ 
Jig Ta-t'hae-le says, *' Those who eat grain may become 
wise and skilful ; those that eat their breath (as the 
Taouists pretend to do) may become spiritually intelligent 
and lon^-lived ; while those that never eat at all may become 
*^^ % mU W i^nmortal and ether eaV^ 



On reviewing the above quotations, the first thought which 
strikes the mind is the compendious character of the Thesau- 
rus, from which they are extracted, as well as the concise 
form in which the work is printed. The preceding quotations, 
which occupy but ten leaves of the Chinese work, have, with 
but few additional remarks, required about SO pages to exhibit 
them properly in English ; while the volume from which the 
extracts are taken contains 124 of such leaves ; so that 
to represent properly one volume of the Chinese The- 
saurus, an English book of 1,000 pages would be requisite. 
When we consider, that there are 140 such volumes in the 
Chinese work, it will easily be seen how compendious the 
original must be ; also what, stores of learning must have 
been at the command of the compilers, and what unwearied 
diligence they must have displayed, to compile a work con- 
sisting of n:ore than half a million quotations from standard 
authors. What western lexicographers have ever accumulated 
so many authorities ] and what boldness must he possess, who 
would attempt to dispute points on philology with such men 
as the compilers of the Chinese Thesaurus ? When these have 
given the meaning of a term, and brought hundreds of quota- 
tions to establish it, where is the man wIjo, in the face of such 
evidence, would venture to propose a contrary opinion ? and 
who could ever hope to succeed in bringing his hundreds of 
phrases on the other side ? 

We here present the reader wiih an analysis of the pre- 
ceeding quotations. In doing which the fiijures we employ 
will of course refer to the sections, and the letters to the 
separate paragraphs contained in each. 

It will be seen at a glance that the word jjj!^ Shin, in the 
preceding quotations, occurs sometimes as an abstract, and 
sometimes as a concrete noun ; it is also found in the ad- 
jective form, in a sense arising out of the former of these 
two. We shall arrange the quotations under these general 
heads, and thus endeavour to elicit the true meaning of the 
term. 



80 

I. In the abstract. Body and spirit, 155, a. b. To re- 
semble in spirit and differ in form, 130, a. The body is the 
carriage which conveys the spirit, 204, a. The new-born babe 
becomes a living soul, 165, a. The heart and mind, 96, a. b. 
To enlarge the mind and expand the thoughts, 124, a. To 
preserve the mind, 14, b. The flight of mind, 22, a, b. The 
union of the spirit or mind, 27, a. b ; 39, a. The soaring of 
the spirit or mind, 30, a. To make use of one's soul and 
spirit, 123, a. A distressed mind, 145, a. To envelop the 
soul in mystery, 168, a. Every kind of rational energy con- 
stitutes the human spirit, 191, a. The rational soul is the 
spirit of the superior principle of nature, 121, a, b. The 
animal soul is the spirit of the inferior do. 122. a. The in- 
telligent spirit, 176, a. To express one's mind or thoughts, 
152, a, b. The spirits of men, 156, a. To control the spirit, 
235 a, b. The holding in of the spirit, 29, a. The libera- 
tion of the spirit, 31., a. The wandering of one's spirit, 40, 
c, 173, a. To quiet the spirit, 33, a. To withdraw one's 
spirit, 43, a. To exhilirate one's spirit, 44, a, 1S2, a, b.c. 
To terrify one's spirit 47, a. To scare one's spirit, 178, a. 
To alarm the spirit, 153, a. To confuse the spirit, 51, a, b. 
Overawed in spirit, 82. a. To preserve the spirit, 107, a, b. 
To exhaust the spirit, 97, a. To tranquillize, one's spirit, 
190, a. To compose the spirit, 87, a. To cause the spirit to 
rest, 141, a. To hold fast one's spirit, 159, a. To harmo- 
nize one's spirit, 85, a, b, c, 189, a. To felicitate one's spirit, 
89, a. To delight one's spirit, 169, b. To bridle the spirit, 
108, a. To cleanse the spirit, 110, a. To purify one's 
spirit, 162, a, b. To store up the spirit, 111, a. To give 
rest to the spirit, 112, a. To hold in one's spirit, 164, a, b. 
To detain one's spirit, 183, a. To penetrate one's spirit, 20, 
b,c. To perforate one's spirit, 146, a. The natural spirits, 
128, a. The animal spirits, 32, a, b, c, e, h. The congeal- 
ing of the animal spirits, 28, a, b. To nourish one's animal 
spirits, 93, c. To collect one's animal spirits, 105, a. To 



81 

repose the animal spirits, 113, a. To weary one's spirits, 
15, a, b. To excite one's spirits, 187, a. To pluck up the 
spirits, 106, a. To adjust one's spirita, 174, a. To settle 
the spirits, 157, a. To spare one's animal spirits, 90, a. To 
relax the spirits, 125, a ; 180, a, b, c. To understand the 
spirit of anything, 20, a, d. To express the spirit of any- 
thing, 34, c, d. To set forth the spirit of anything 46, a. 
To perpetuate the spirit of anything, 34, b. The spirit of 
war, 125, a. The active spirit of day, 10 i, a. The spiritual 
infiuences of the year, 27, d. To become active as a spirit, 
103, a, b, c. To coinmnnicate aniniatioa lo anything, 34, a. 
The fleet steeds bones becoming animated, 247, a. Animal 
vigour, 32, f, g. The animated gleam of anything, 32, d, i. 
Tb^. essence of watc, 25, a. The essence of China root, 143, 
a, b, c, d. The essence of lermenieJ liquor, ISS. a. Inmia- 
teriality, 21, a, b, c. d. Immortal and ethereal. 256, a. To 
penetrate iito the spiritual, 92, a, b, c. To promote one's 
spirituality, 93, a,b. To become supernatural, 212, a. To 
enter into tlie mysleriouc, 1, a, c, e. To influence mysteri- 
ously, 14, a. Extremely mysterious, 55, a. Round and 
mysteriontJ, 59 a. h. Tiu.i.»forniatio:is my2t'?rioud, 64, a, b. 
To understand the mysterious, 57, a. To approach the won- 
derful, 1, b. To border on the marvellous, l,d. Connected 
with the marvellows, 27, c. To carry out the mars^ellous, 
56, a. The divining straws are marvellous, 117, a. The 
tripods are marvellous things, 205, a. Shaou-keun is a mar- 
velous follow. 208, a. Inscrutably intelligent, 60, a, b : 158 

a. Recondite and still more recondite, 255, a. 

In the concrete. Manes of ancestors, 207, a. The, 
manes of Fang-fun«r, 220, a. The manes of E-yangf, 223, a. 
The shade of Hwang-te, 154, a. The thadc of T'hae-tae, 
227, a. The shade of Woo-seen, 240, a. The shade of the 
purple dame, 224, a. b. The spirit of tfic bamboo king, 210, a. 
TliespiritofFoo-yu,211,a. Ghosts haunting a dwelling, 166.. 

b. The ghosts and hobgoblins of the Chaou family, 214, a. 

K 



82 



The mounted speotre of Yue, 234, a. The spectres that 
scream like storks, 244, a. To look out for apparitions^ 78, 
a, b. The spectre in the mirror, 248, a. Wandering ghosts, 
40, a, b ; 144, a. Licentious sprites, 49, a. Vapoury spectres, 
79, a. Shadowy sprites, 136, a. The abode of sprites, 166, 
a. The sprites or fairies of mountains, 5, a, b, c, d, e. The 
spirit of the hill, 100, a, b, c, d. The spirit of Kwan-woo 
hill, 219, a. The fairy of Koo-chay hill, 50, a. The fairy 
of the mound, 230, a. The fairies of the fragrant isle, 239, 
a. The spirit of Chaou-to (a witch), 237, a. The sylvan 
elf, 95, a, b, c ; 170, a. Water sprites, 25, b, c, d. The 
sprite of the Hwae river, 26, a. The sprite of the Seang 
river, 186, a, b. The fairy of the river L6, 45, a, b, c, d, e, f. 
The sprite of the Han river, 131, a. The sprite of the Keang 
river 181 , a. The sprite of the Yellow River, 193, a. The fairies 
of the brooks, 198, a. The fairies of the pearly pool, 245, a. 
The spirit of the waves, 179, a, b ; 206, a. The fairy of salt 
water, 86, a. The spirit or genius of the sea, 24, a, b, c. 
The sprite of the Tsin country, 84, a. The sprites of the sou- 
thern regions, 184, a. The border spirit, 135. a. The fairy who 
visited the pillow, 232, a. The fairy who visited the king of 
Tsob, 235, a. Fortunate fairies, 101, a. Good spirits, 77, 
a, b. Bad spirits 77, a. The needle fairy, 35, a. The red 
fairy, 134, a. The snake sprite, 36, a, b. The snake-hold- 
ing spirit, 213, a. The flower genius, 34, a, b, c. The gen i* 
us of millet, 120, a. Tlie genius of tea, 142, a, b. The 
genii of the withes, 199, a. The verdant spirit, 196, a. 
The green-€lad spirit, 225, a. The azure spirit, 109, a. 
The spirit of the field, 177, a. The genius of wine. 139, a. 
The genius of silk-worms, 195, a, b. The genius of metal, 
167, a, b. The spirit of money, 19, a, b. The diamond 
spirit, 259, a. The spirit of the tripod, 205, a. The spirit of 
the eaves, 119, a. The spirit of the open terrace, 52, a. The 
spirits of highways and bye-ways, 209, a. The genius of 
the eating-house, 227, a. The spirit of gold-fish, 221, a. 



S3 

The spirits of fowls, 203, a. The porcine spirit, 133, a. 
Tlie spirit of the brain, 137, a, b. The genius of hair, 140, a. 
The spirits of the five viscera 238, a. The spirit of the white 
ti^er, 22fi, a. The spirit of the iron ox, 241, a. The spirit 
of the golden horse, 246, a. The spirit of the response-giv- 
ing dragon, 231, a. To correspond to some spirit, 175, a. 
The attendant spirits of the palace, 185, a. The stupid 
image of a spirit, 192, a. The spirit of the stone gentleman, 
236, a. Tlie punishing spirit, 114, a. Tlie drumming spi- 
rit, 102, a. Tlie demon of the arrow, 91, a, b. The united 
spirits, 88, a. The temple-visiting spirit, 233, a. The mo- 
ther spirit, or earth, SI a, b. The spirit of the earth, 118, a. 
The spirit of the earth is its vapour, 79, b. The spirit of the 
ground, 67, a, b. The nine day s' spirit, 54. a. The spirit 
of the year, 218, a. The genius of the cycle, 229, a. The 
spirit of 100 ages, 53, a. The spirit of the ten horary cha- 
racters, 217, a. The spirits of the 12 moons, 215, a. The 
genius of the moon, 201, a. The genius of the sun, 200, a. 
Tlie spirit that controls the night, 242, a. The genius of 
wisdom, 254, a. Tl»e tpirils of music, 138, a, b. The ge- 
nius of song, 202, a. The spirits of heavenly music, 251, a. 
The spirits of celestial art, 250 a. The spirits of the wind, 
37, a. The spirits that soar through space, 252, a. Spirits 
of the pearly empyreal, 249, a. Spirits of heaven, 11, a, b, 
c, d, e, f. The great spirits, 68, a, b ; 132, a. The honour- 
able spirits, 48, a. The great spirit of nature, 129, a. The 
original spirit, 129, a. The excellent spirit, 94, a. The 
spirit of the Great Unity, 243, a. Demons and spirits, 2, a, 
b, c, d, e : 8, g. Fierce spirits and demons, 116, a. The 
spirit of the demon dame, 222, a. Beings possessed of a 
spiritual nature, 3, a, b. Intelligent spirits, 62, a, b, c, d, e, f. 
The three kinds of spirits, (viz. of heaven, earth, and men,) 
17, a, b, c. The five spirits (of the elements), 148, a, b. 
The six spirits (of the cardinal points), 41, a. The eight 
spirits (or spiritual ones), 16, a, b, c, d. The nine spirits. 



84 



149, a, b. The hundred spirits, 7, a, b, c, d, e. The hosts 
of spirits, 61, a, b, c, d. AH the spirits, 74, a. Men and 
spirits, 156, b. Resembling spiritual beings, 8, a, b, c, d, e, 
f, h. To be equal with spiritual beini^s, 161, a. To search 
out the spirits, 18,.a: 99, a. To compare the spirits, 160, a. 
To penetrate to spiritual beings, 20, c. To assemble the 
spirits, 172. a. To keep the spirits together, 76, a. To 
cause the spirits to descend, 4, a, b. To greet the spirits on 
their approach, 6, a, b : 80, a, b. To have intercourse with 
spirits, 83, a, b, c, d. To approach the spirits, 115, a. To 
lead fortfi the spirks, 65, a. To set forth the spirits, 71, a. 
To adjust the spirits, 72. a. To regulate or manaee the spi- 
rits, 12, a : 13. a. To distribute places to the spirits, 171, a. 
To win over the spirits, 42, a. To assist spiritual beinsjs, 
58, a. To afford som<»thing for spirits to rely on, 63. a. To 
keep the spirits within doors, 66, a. To feast the spirits, 
67, a. To provide for the spirits, 69, a. To influence spi- 
ritual beines. 163, a. To rely on the spirits, 63, b : 73, a. 
To honour spiritual beings, 9. a : 10, a, b. To present offer- 
ings to the spirits, 147, a. To do obeisance to the spirits, 
98, a, b. To perform rites to the spirits, 150, a. To present 
than^-offerinfrg to th» spirit?. 194, a To propitiate the spi- 
rits of the ground, ?16. a. To sacrifice to the spirits, 70, a. 
Thus out of nearly 400 quotations, from standard Chinese 
authors, three-eighths of the passages adduced present the 
word Shin in the abstract, and five-eighths in the concrete 
form. With respect to the former, there can be no mistake. 
The word thus employed means spirit, or something nearly 
allied thereto ; most frequently the human spirit : and no ^'n- 
genuity can extract the idea of God from this class of quota- 
tions. It would be extremely difficult to translate many 
of the passages under the first head, particularly those at the 
commencement, by substituting the word God for spirit, and 
make sense of them. We feel perfe^ctly convinced, that it 
cannot be doncj without offering the greatest violence to the 



So 

Chinese languaj^e, and distorting the passages in question, to 
express a meaning which tlie writers never intended to con- 
vey. With regard to the second class of quotations, in which 
Shin is used in the concrete, it will be j>erceived, that we 
have rendered the word raanes, ghost, spectre, sprite, fairy, elf, 
genius, and spirit. Some may perhaps ask, why we have 
not translated the term, in these connections, God : we offer 
in reply the following reasons : 

First. There is not a 9ing:le instance, in all the preceding 
quotations, wherein the word Shin is used for God, by way 
of eminence. If Shin had ever been thus used, by any 
Chinese writer, we should have been compelled to translate 
it God in that instance ; and if the same term had likewise 
been employed for designating a class of invisible beings, 
inferior to the Supreme, it might have been urged, that in 
these other instances, the Chinese intended to express the 
idea, that those inferior invisible agdnts were of the same 
class, in respect to their divinity, wiih the one Ruler overall; 
and thus it might have been argiied, that we ou^ht to trans- 
late the term, when referring to them, by God also ; but 
the Chinese never having used Sliin for God by wav of emi- 
nence, we are not necessitated to translate it God, when used 
for u class of invisible beings i.if lior (o ihe Supreme. Their 
calling God by way of eminence a Shin, is not sufficient to 
warrant us in translating the term Shin by God, unless they 
were found to denominate him Shin absolutely, as the Shin, 
or Shin, without any adjunct. If in a physiological work, 
we met with a term, which was common to human beings, 
and the brute creation, without ever being applied especially 
and absolutely to the former, and without containing any- 
thing in it which constituted the particular nature of the 
former, as distinguishing it from the latter, we should not be 
warranted in translating it man but anhnal ; so it is with 
the word Shin in the present instance. The Chinese Ian- 
guage furnishes us with a case which may serve to ilhistrate 



86 

this point. The word ^^ wuh, commonly rendered things 
is sometimes used with reference to man, and man is said to 
be inchided among the ^ things; but it would not be proper 
to use 3^ thing, as a term whereby to design?rte the genus 
homo ;and the foreign writer in Cliinese, who should attempt 
to do so, would most assuredly be misunderstood. It has 
been argued, that the chief God among the Chinese is a 
Shin, and that the Supreme in their estimation is the most 
honourable amoncr the Shins. So it can he sh^wn, that the 
greatest man is a ifi^ thing ; the phrase J\^ ^ is us >d ia 
statistical works, for the distingruished men in any particular 
district : Morrison tells us, that it sometimes means only 
man; ^/ :^ means other men as well as one's-self ; ^g 
5^ is employed by M-^ncins for an abandoned man ; and 
the phrase "A. ^ ^ ^^ /^S "^^'^ ^^ ^^^ "^^'^ intelligent 
of all things," is well known : yet ^ thing- cannot be used 
absolutely and commonly for man. without involving in ob- 
scurity every thing that is advanced on the subject. 

Secondly. There is not a single passage, among all the 
preceding quotations, in which the word spirit, as a translation 
of Shin, does not make sense : while in many cases the word 
manes, ghost, shade, elf, fairy, or sprite makes better sense 
than the word god would do in the circumstances. If then 
we are not necessitated to translate the word Shin by God in 
any case, and we should do better by rendering it manes, ghost, 
&c. in many, while in all the word could pro|ierly be repre- 
sented by spirit, we conclude that spirit is the true rendering. 

Thirdly. Because the Chinese themselves would not 
thus translate the term, or, what is the same thing, they 
would not, if called upon to express the same idea in other 
terms, in the preceding quotations, use any word which is 
employed by them to designate God by way of eminence. 
In all those passages in which we have employed manes, 
ghost, shade, sprite, fairy, elf, or genius, as the translation of 
Shin, the Chinese would, if called upon to say the same 



87 

thing in other words, use ^ kwei, ^ yaou, j^ kwae 
tsing, (fcc. and in all those passages in which we have em- 
ployed spirit as the rendering of Shin, they would use ^ 
ling. We conclude, therefore, that in iraiislating their books, 
and in endeavouring to express the ideas which they wish to 
convey, we ought not to use a term which is emjiloyed for 
God by way of eminence, to render a word which in their esti- 
mation properly represents spirit. 

On reviewing the whole, our deliberate conclusion is, that the 
word|l|J Sljin means spirit or something allied thereto. It 
means, as the Lexicographer eays,^ ling, spirit or spiritual ; 
if we turn to the word ^nT^ Iiul', in the same Thesaurus, we 
shall find the comjiiler defining it by fil^ Shin, spirit or spi- 
ritual. The one term explains the other, and they are used 
alternately to set forth the meaning one of the other, as if 
there were no other term in the lan^'uage, which could pro- 
perly do it. Tljey are therefore ."Synonymous. Lii»g, means 
in a great measure what Shin means, and Shin imporis what 
Ling im()orts. They could be used the one for the other, 
without impediment, and are so frequently. There is little 
or no dilfcrence between them, very much like gho^i and 
spirit, in theEn;j;lish lan«:uage. Those who oppose this view 
of Shin, while they use Sliin for God, have employed Ling 
for Spirit, and the Holy Spirit. According to the Chinese 
lexicographers, they mean the same thing. We leave our 
opponents to reconcile this inconsisiency. The advocates of 
Shin, in the seisse of God, have also been in the habit of in- 
culcating the sentiment, that " there is but one Siiin." We 
cannot conceive how any can persevere in this statement, in 
the face of the evidence adduced in the preceding pages, that 
every human spirit, both before and after death, with every 
description of invisible intelligrence, is undoubtedly a Shin. 
To say that there is only one Shin, is equivalent to saying, 
that there is only one Ling; for Shin and Ling are synony- 
mous : and what would be thought of a man, who, in any 



88 



language, should affirm that there is only one spirit ! 

The nearest spiritual power or operation of which men can 
have any conception is their own minds; they feel that the.e 
is something within them which thinks, and acts indepen- 
dently of the body, and uses the body as its instrument. 
This is their spirit. The thought is not an unnatural one, 
that this spirit exists after the body has ceased to breathe ; 
hence men iiave conceived of the manes of the dead, of ghosts 
and apparitions, with the necessity of resorting to some 
means for satisfying thsm. Not far removed from this was 
the imagination, that high mountains and mighty rivers 
might be animated by certain spiritual influences, wnich 
could be rendered favourable or not, according as certain 
ceremonies were performed or neglected by their votaries. 
The air might then, in thought, be peopled wilh ethereal 
beings, and the sun, moon, and stars, wind, rain, and thun- 
der be supposed to have spiritual beings, who directed their 
movements, and who could, by increasing or diminishing 
t!)eir effects, render them ben^ricial or otherwise to mankind ; 
hence sacrifices were offered to these imaginary beings. All 
this, however, might be coabistent wiih the idea, that the 
whole of these spirits were subordinate agents, acting under 
one Great Controller, who, though himself a spiritual being, 
was far removed above them all. Some other term was 
therefore found necessary to designate iiira, and the com- 
mon appellation for spirits was found not to be sufficiently ex- 
pressive of the Ruler of all. It might have suggested itself, 
also, that this term, when once applied to the Supreme, and 
to the imaginary rulers of the elements, could not be properly 
employed for designating the inferior beings beneath their 
sway. Separate terms therefore might have been invented 
for expressing these distinct ideas. Something of this process, 
it appears to the writer, has been going on in the Chinese 
mind, and the supposition will acccJiint for much that would 
otherwise be inexplicable in their system, and inconsistent 
in the terms? whicf) thev emniov. 



I 



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true meaning of the word Shin 



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